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- Monomers (amino acids) and Polymers (peptides/proteins)
- Different functional groups (R) dictate the kind of amino acids
- 4 Different Groups: Hydrogen, Carboxyl, Amino and R is different in each
4 Different Ways of Folding Protein?
- Primary: It lasts 1 millisecond, begins forming secondary, straight
- Secondary: 3D Alpha Helices and 2D Beta-sheets
- Tertiary: The protein folds upon itself and is held together by the disulfide bridges and hydrogen bonds.
- Quarternary: Fully formed proteins, pockets of activity, multiple tertiary structures
- Denaturation: Destroyinh the structure of a protein
- Made of Organic Base, Sugar, Phosphate
- DNA and RNA
- AMP, ADP, ATP
- Purines and Pyrimidines
DNA vs. RNA?
- Genetics Code - Directs protein synthesis
- DNA: double stranded, missing a Hydroxyl group (unlike RNA), Thymine
- RNA: 1 stranded, Uracil
AMP vs. ADP vs. ATP?
- ATP: Adenosine triphosphate (3 phosphates attached)
- ADP: Adenosine Diphosphate (2 phosphates attached)
- AMP: Adenosine monoposphate (1 phosphate attached)
- The more phosphates it has, the more stored energy it has
- Usually in a cell, the molecules jump back and fourth between ATP and ADP, releasing energy (by breaking off a phosphate) and storing energy (by attatching a phosphate)
Purines and Pyrimidines
- Purines: two ring structure, bigger of the two, DNA are Adenine and Guanine, RNA the purines are the same as DNA
- Pyrimidines: one ring structure, DNA are thymine and cytosine, Uracil is the RNA substitute for thymine
- Multiple lenses in each objective - compound
- Ocular Lens: maginifies 10X, the maximum magnification is 1000X
Wavelengths of Light
- Smaller wavelengths have more energy (gamma rays, x-rays, ultra-violet rays)
- Need half of the wavelength to see, enough light needs to pass between two objects.
- We can see 275 nm, which resolves from the visible light of 550 nm.
- UV light can go a bit smaller (110 nm)
- Reflection: gives object color (color bounces off mirrors)
- Transmission: light travelling through translucency
- Absorption: Shinging UV light, takes it in, gives off wavelength
- Defraction: light bends around small opening
- Refraction: bending light, all things have a different index of refraction, glass and oil have different refractions (glass rod disappears)
- For oil at 100X refraction, it helps the light not refract as much so the image can focus at the high magnification
Bright Field Microscopy
- Condenser focuses the light through the specimen
- This is what we use in lab
Dark Field Light Microscopy (LM)
Condenser focuses light at different angles around specimen and to reflect off of the specimen
- Stains kill most organisms
- Special condenser and objective lenses that bring out small refractive indexes in various cell structures
- Different refractive indexes have slightly different degrees of brightness
- Similar to phase contrast but has a very short depth of field
- Produces almost 3D images
- Proteins from Jellyfish, attached to antibodies (Immunofluorescence), UV light used
- Using antibodies that have fluorescent proteins attached to them, then these antibodies bind to specific targets bringing this fluorescent protein with them (excites molecules that release light at larger visible wavelengths).