What makes us different?
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What are projective tests?
- A personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts projected by the person into the test
- Rorschach tests: Rorschach (1921) ambiguous designs, asked what you see
- Mostly pseudoscience and causes illusory correlations with confirmation bias affecting it
- Homosexuals saying they see monsters, trend not recognised
What are personality measurements?
- Theory driven: questions tap into theory of behaviour (are you gay?)
- Myers-Briggs: a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions
- Based on the theories of Karl Jung, most widely used test of personality
- Categorised as extravert vs introvert, sensory vs intuitive, thinking vs feeling and judgment vs intuitive
- Howes & Carskadon (1979) showed that, when taking the test as little as 5 weeks later, as many as 50% of applicants are classified into different subtypes
What is the MMPI?
- The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
- Rated on a number of factors such as dominance and the discrepancy above or below the norm is examined
- Factor analysis is carried out
- Do you like certain things?
- The explicit responses are measured allowing latent variables (implicit assumptions) to be predicted and analysed
- Correlates in answers are used to categorise
What is OCEAN?
- The big 5 personality traits (Costa & McRae (1992)
- Openness to experience: intellectually curious, creative, imaginative and independent
- Conscientiousness: tend to be organised and dependable, self disciplined and strategic
- Extraversion: tend to seek stimulation and the company of others, talkative
- Agreeableness: tend to be compassionate and co-oprative, more trusting
- Neuroticism: tend to experience unpleasant emotions easily
What was the Stanford-Binet intelligence test?
- Developed by Terman (1916)
- Diagnostic test of general knowledge as it asked questions that it was assumed that the majority of applicants of the same age knew the answer to
What is the two factor theory?
- Cattell (
- Intelligence is divided into crystallised and fluid intelligence
- Crystallised: the knowledge the person has already acquired and the ability to access this information
- Fluid: the ability to see complex relationships and solve new problems
What is the multiple intelligences theory?
- Gardner (1999)
- logical mathematic
- bodily kinaesthetic
Where can I get more info about intelligence tests?
Look at the Spearman's G flashcards
Why does the Flynn effect (1984) occur?
- Bad memory tests, only provide a correlate with a weak causal link to intelligence (Flynn 1987)
- Increased school attendance, more visual information in our environment and a decline in reading (Williams, 1998)
- BUT the Flynn effect is strongest in the Raven's progressive matrix, and that unaffected by education
- BUT BUT Lynn (1998) argues that scores can be improved by improving mathematical ability
- Difference in school year correlated with performance, Israeli kids differed in age by only months but entered school in different years due to cutoffs
- The effect of one year of schooling on both crystallised and fluid indicators was greater than one year of age (Cahan & Cohen, 1989)
- Nutrition: a UN study found that, in 8 year old children in the Philippines, nonverbal IQ scores are strongly correlated with the level of stunting they have endured
How can we empirically measure heritability?
- Heritability: the proportion of observed differences of a trait amongst individuals of a population that are due to genetic factors
- We measure the variance in traits for a population using twin studies
- Variance is an interaction between environment and heritability
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