Chapter 3 Final Review

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Author:
dmshaw9
ID:
301564
Filename:
Chapter 3 Final Review
Updated:
2015-04-26 11:53:37
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Chapter
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NPTE,Final Review
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NPTE: Final Review
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  1. Hyperkalemia
    • Decreased rate/force of contraction
    • Widened PR int and QRS
    • Flattened P waves
    • Tall T waves
  2. Hypokalemia
    • Flattened/inverted T waves
    • Prolonged PR int and QT int
    • U wave present
    • Arrhythmias → may progress to Vfib
  3. Hypercalcemia
    • Widens QRS
    • Shortens QT
    • Increased heart actions
  4. Hypocalcemia
    • Prolongs QT
    • Decreased heart actions
  5. Hypermagnesemia
    Calcium blocker → arrhythmias/cardiac arrest
  6. Hypomagnesemia
    • Ventricular arrhythmias 
    • Coronary artery vasospasm
    • Sudden death
  7. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome
    Sustained HR increase ≥ 30 bpm within 10 minutes of standing (≥ 40 bpm in teenagers)
  8. S3 Heart Sound
    • Associated with ventricular filling
    • Occurs soon after S2
    • Congestive (LV) heart failure
  9. S4 Heart Sound
    • Associated with ventricular filling and atrial contraction
    • Occurs just before S1
    • Indicative of pathology (CAD, MI, aortic stenosis or chronic HTN)
  10. Premature Ventricular Contractions
    • No P wave
    • Bizarre, wide QRS that is premature
    • Long compensatory pause
    • Serious = > 6/min, paired or in sequential runs, multifocal, R on T phenomenon
  11. Ventricular Tachycardia
    • 3+ PVCs occurring sequentially
    • 150-200 bpm
    • Result of ischemic ventricle (compromised CO)
    • Wide, bizarre QRS
    • No P waves
    • Non-sustained Vtach = 3+ consecutive beats, terminates in < 30 seconds
    • Sustained Vtach = > 30 seconds
  12. Ventricular Fibrillation
    • Pulseless, emergency situation
    • Multiple foci
    • Bizarre erratic activity without QRS
    • No effective CO → death in 4-6 min
  13. Atrial Arrhythmias
    • A fib: p waves abnormal, > 300 bpm
    • A tach: 140-250 bpm
    • A flutter: 250-350 bpm
    • CO usually maintained if rate is controlled
  14. AV Blocks
    • Abnormal delay/failure to conduct through normal conducting system
    • Ventricular rate slowed → decreased CO
    • 3rd degree = complete heart block (life threatening)

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