Geography Key Words - Health

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Author:
ashasumroy
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301573
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Geography Key Words - Health
Updated:
2015-04-26 14:08:05
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geography health keywords
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Key terms for health
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  1. Age Specific Death Rate 
    The total number of deaths per 100 people of a given age per year 
  2. AIDS
    • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
    • full extent of conditions brought about by the deterioration of the body's immune system cause by HIV
  3. Antiretroviral (ARV) Drugs
    Drugs designed to protect the immune system from the damaging effects of HIV
  4. Attack Rate
    Number of cases of a disease diagnosed on an area, divided by the total population, over the period of an epidemic
  5. Balanced Diet
    • Overall dietary pattern of foods consumed that provide all the essential nutrients in he appropriate amounts, to support life processes such as growth in children
    • without promoting excess weight
  6. Behavioural Disease
    • Disease created or spread by human behaviour/decisions
    • e.g. lung disease, which is endorsed by smoking
  7. Body Mass Index
    • Simple index weight-for-height 
    • Commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity 
    • weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in metres) squared
  8. Cancer
    Name given to a range of illnesses which result from cells in the body growing out of control
  9. Case Mortality Rate
    Number dying form a disease divided by the the number of those diagnosed
  10. Chronic Disease
    • Disease that is long-lasting or recurrent 
    • usually incurable
    • e.g. cancer
  11. Contagious Disease
    communicable disease spread by close contact
  12. Crude Birth Rate
    Number of live births per 1000 population per year 
  13. Crude Death Rate
    Number of deaths per 1000 population per year
  14. Crude Rates
    Measures the basic statistics of any population
  15. Disability Adjusted LiFe Years (DALYs)
    • Indication of the number of healthy years of life lost
    • indicates total burden of a disease, as opposed to number of deaths
  16. Determinant
    Any factor, whether event, characteristic or other definable entity, that brings about a change in health condition or other defined characteristic
  17. Disease
    A bodily disorder preventing good health
  18. Development of disease
    • The way in which a disease actually develops 
    • e.g. development of the malarial parasite in a mosquito or human host
  19. Endemic
    An infectious disease that is always present in an area
  20. Epidemic
    When a disease spreads quickly to affect large numbers of people in an area
  21. Epidemiology
    The study of the spread of disease
  22. Famine
    • A time when there is so little food available that many people starve
    • to do with access rather than availability
  23. Globalisation
    The close economic interdependence between the leading nations of the world in trade, investment and cooperative commercial relations
  24. Health
    • A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing
    • not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
    • the overall condition of an individual at a given time
  25. Health Care
    • the prevention, treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental health
    • through the services offered by medical, nursing and allied health professionals
  26. Health Insurance
    • An amount paid for health treatment
    • Usually probate unlike public contributions which are funded through taxation
  27. Health care system
    System created by governments to provide healthcare across the population
  28. HIV
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    • virus that attacks the immune system of the infected
    • infection transmitted by the passing of bodily fluids from the infected 
  29. Incidence Rate
    The number of people develop a condition within a period of time
  30. Infant mortality rate
    The number of deaths of children under the age of 1, per 1000 live births, per year
  31. Infectious
    • Caused by germs
    • Likely to be transmitted through the environment
  32. Malnutrition 
    Lack of proper nutrition resulting form a poorly balanced diet
  33. Millennium Development Goals
    • 8 goals agreed by the UN in September 2000 for all people to work towards achieving by 2015
    • The MDGs recognised the most important needs for developing countries
  34. Morbidity
    The state of being ill or diseased or the occurrence of of a disease or condition that damages health and quality of life
  35. Mortality
    • The death of people
    • measured by a number of indices e.g. Infant mortality rate
  36. Mortality gap
    the gap in death rates between wealthier and poorer countries
  37. mortality rate
    number of deaths per 1000 population per year
  38. Non-communicable diseases
    • a disease that cannot be passed from one person to another
    • e.g. cancer
  39. Notifiable disease
    • any disease that is required, by law, to be reported to the government
    • e.g. ebola
  40. Obesity
    • Abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health
    • condition caused by over-consumption of calories
    • WHO defines obesity as a BMI equal to, or more than 30
  41. Opportunistic Infection
    Illness that strikes people whose immune system has been damaged by HIV
  42. Outbreak
    An epidemic limited to localised increase in the incidence of disease, such as in a town or institution 
  43. Overwight
    • Abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health
    • Condition caused by over consumption of calories
    • WHO defines as BMI of more than 25
  44. Palliative
    a drug/treatment designed to reduce symptoms and/or ease pain without dealing with the condition that causes the problem
  45. Pandemic
    An epidemic that spreads over a very large area such as a continent or the world
  46. Patented Drugs
    • Medicines that have been developed by a company that has claimed rights to their production
    • no other company can produce them without permission and a licence bought form the patent holder
    • this means companies can earn back the costs of developing the drug
  47. Periodic Famine
    • Short term lack of food as a result of crop failure
    • opposite of chronic famine
  48. Pharmaceutical
    Linked to drugs and their development
  49. Prevalence rate
    An indication of the number of people in a population suffering from a condition at any one time
  50. Primary Care Trusts
    • UK Administrative areas which provide hospital and doctors' surgeries
    • Planned to be abolished by 2013 when GP's will be in control of much of the NHS budget and will take over planning and buying local services from PCTs
  51. Public Health
    • Aspect of medical activity directed towards improving health in the community 
    • Addresses the health of the population as a whole rather than medical care, which focuses on treatment of the individual ailment 
  52. Tobacco
    • Agricultural product, recognised as an addictive drug, which is processed from the fresh leaves of a plant 
    • Native to tropical America
  53. Transnational Coporation
    • A company that operates in at least two countries
    • Common for TNCs to have a heirarchical structure
    • Headquarters and R&D in (MEDC) country of origin and manufacturing plants overseas
  54. Undernourishment
    Condition that results from consuming too little food over a long period of time
  55. Under-nutrition
    Lacking adequate minerals and vitamins
  56. Vaccine
    an injection designed to prevent an infection
  57. WHO
    • World Heath Organisation
    • Specialised agency of the UN that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health

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