ch 22

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LaurenDavis
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301578
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ch 22
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2015-04-29 18:46:51
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  1. microbial ecology
    study of microbes in their natural habitats
  2. Applied microbiology
    study of practical uses of microbes in water and food processing, industrial production, and biotechnology
  3. Microbial ecology and applied microbiology overlap because
    most natural habitats have been altered by human activities
  4. Eutrophication
    • change dues to humans
    • produce waste
    • change things slightly so microbes have to alter/change with them
  5. Human intervention in natural settings has:
    (4)
    • changed the earth's warming and cooling cycles
    • increased waste in soil
    • polluted water
    • altered some basic relationships between microbial, animal, and plant life
  6. Human Micro biome Projest used to
    identify microbes living in the environment- land water air
  7. Environmental genomics has revealed (2)
    • bacteria living in glaciers
    • bacteria living deep under the seafloor
  8. metagenomics
    the genes of all microbes in a habitat samples
  9. metagenomic process
    • begins with an environmental sample: a gallon of sea water, or a gram of soil
    • DNA is extracted from these samples
    • fragments are cloned into a plasmid
    • a library of DNA fragments is preserved and amplified 
    • once the nucleotide pieces are retrieved, they can be sequenced
    • it can determine whether they match known sequences or are new to us
    • DNA sequences can be cloned into expression vectors, which can then be screened for their functions or their products
  10. At microscopic level, soil is a
    dynamic ecosystem
  11. Soil teems with
    microbes
  12. Soil serves as
    a dynamic role in biogeochemical cycles
  13. soil import what
    important repository for organic detritus and dead terrestrial organisms
  14. Rock decomposition release
    various size particles
  15. Porous structures of the soil creates
    various size pockets or spaces that provide numerous microhabitats
  16. Some spaces in soil trap
    moisture
  17. Some spaces in soil trap moisture and form
    a liquid phase in which mineral ions and other nutrients are dissolved
  18. Other spaces in soil trap
    are that will provide gasses to soil, microbes, plant, and animals
  19. Soil supports a great number of
    bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and viruses
  20. Rhizosphere
    zone of soil surrounding the roots of plants
  21. Rhizosphere contains
    bacteria, fungi, and protozoa
  22. Plants interact with soil microbes in a
    synergistic fashion
  23. a rich microbial community grows in a
    biofilm around root hairs, and other exposed surfaces
  24. Soil is a ____ for ______, ______, _______ ______
    repository for agricultural, industrial, and domestic wastes
  25. Agricultural, industrial and domestic wastes examples
    insecticides, herbicides, fungicide, manufacturing waste, household chemical
  26. Applied microbiologist work to
    work to explore the disability of harnessing indigenous soil microbes to break down undesirable hydrocarbons and pesticides
  27. Deep subsurface microbiology
    bacteria that metabolize petroleum to CO2 a million times slower than surface microbes
  28. microbes may be anywhere from ____ to ____ years old
    100 to 100,000 years old
  29. Deep subsurface microbes exist solely in
    biofilms on rock surfaces
  30. Deep surface microbes live in
    nearly abiotic environments, and may provide clues to the origin of life
  31. water occupies nearly
    3/4 of the earth surface
  32. Hydrologic cycle
    • begins with surface water (lakes, ocean, and river) is exposed to the sun and evaporates 
    • plants lose moisture through transpiration
    • aerobic organisms give off water through respiration
    • airborne moisture accumulates in the atmosphere as clouds 
    • water is return to the earth through condensation or perception (rain and snow)
    • clouds release rain and snow when particles of water become too large for a fine mist of clouds to support
  33. Nucleators
    tiny particles that cause the formation of raindrops or snowflakes
  34. dust particles are thought to be
    nucleator
  35. what causes most percipation
    research has shown that bacteria are nucleator causing most precipitation
  36. Ocean exhibits extreme variation in
    salinity, depth, temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and mixing
  37. Ocean supports
    great abundance of bacteria and viruses
  38. Freshwater is site of
    tremendous microbiological activity
  39. microbial distribution is asociated with
    sunlight, temperature, oxygen levels, and nutrients availability
  40. Red tide produced by
    toxin producing dinoflagellates
  41. red tide fish and human disease traced to
    overgrowth of these algae in polluted water
  42. red tide algae produce
    a potent muscle toxin that is a concentrated in shellfish through filtration feeding
  43. When humans eat clams, muscles, or oysters containing the toxin
    they develop paralytic shellfish poisoning
  44. Eutrophication
    addition of excess quantities of nutrients to aquatic ecosystems
  45. bloom
    heavy surface growth of cyanobacteria and algae due to influx of nutrients and warm temperatures
  46. they heavy ____ of ____ shuts off oxygen supple to the lake below
    mat of biomass
  47. What further depletes by aerobic heterotrophs that decomposes the organic matter
    oxygen
  48. lack of oxygen disturbs the ecological balance causing
    massive die off of higher organism
  49. Drinking water most comes from
    river, aquifers, and springs
  50. In most cities, water must be
    treated before it its supplied to consumers
  51. Sewage contains large amounts of
    • solid waster
    • dissolved organic matter
    • toxic chemicals 
    • pose health risks
  52. Primary stage water treatments
    separates out urge matter
  53. secondary stage of water treatment
    reduces remaining matter and removes some toxic substances
  54. tertiary stage of water treatment
    completes purification of the water
  55. membrane bioreactors
    combinations of microbial communities and high efficiency membranes that are efficient at removing
  56. reclaimed sewage water used to
    • water golf courses and parks rather than drinking 
    • may be gradually released into large bodies of water
  57. worldwide epidemics of ____ have killed thousands of people
    cholera
  58. what is responsible for billion of cases of diarrheal diseases that kill 3 million children a year
    lack of sanitary water
  59. in US, 1 million people develop
    waterborne illness every year
  60. Good health is dependent on
    clean, potable water
  61. Good water must be
    free of pathogen, dissolved toxins, disagreeable turbidity, odor, color, taste
  62. Most prominent waterborne protozoa
    Giardia and cryptosporidium
  63. Most prominent waterborne bacteria
    camplylobacter, salmonella, shigella, vibrio, mycobacterium
  64. Most prominent waterborne viruses
    hepatitis A, norwalk viruses
  65. Some microorganism can survive
    in natural waters for long period of without human host
  66. water purity assays are focuses on detecting
    fecal contamination
  67. high fecal levels can mean
    the water contains pathogens and is unsafe to drink
  68. indicator bacteria
    intestinal residents of birds and mammals readily identified using routine lab procedures
  69. cloakrooms and enteric streptococci indicate
    high levels of fecal contamination
  70. Coliforms
    • gram-negative,lactose-fermenting, gas producing bacteria 
    • Escherichia coli, enterobacter, and citrobacter
  71. EPA standards for water sanitation are based on
    primarily on levels of coliforms
  72. coliforms enumeration
    simple tests such as presence-absence broth detect coliform activity but do not quantify it
  73. Rapid test
    isolate coliforms and provide quantities of coliform present
  74. What is a good way to determine if the water or its products have been exposed to feces
    to test for E. coli
  75. Coliform used to
    regulate food production and to trace the causes of food-borne outbreaks
  76. most probable number (MPN)
    detects coliforms by a series of presumptive, confirmatory, and completed test
  77. Most probable number (MPN) is
    set of numbers is applied to a statistical table that estimates the most likely or probable concentration of coliforms
  78. food is fermented or otherwise chemically changed by
    addition of microbes or microbial products to alter or improve flavor, taste, texture
  79. microbes can _____ as ____
    sere as food
  80. Detrimental: Microbes cause
    • food poisoning or food-borne illness
    • microbes spoil food
  81. CDC estimates that
    several million people suffer each year from some form of food infection
  82. Outbreaks attributed to common pathogens have
    doubles in the past 20 years
  83. Most common implicated viruses and protozoa
    • Salmonella
    • E. coli
    • Vibrio
    • Listeria
    • Campylobacter
    • hepatitis A virus
  84. What is major factor in the increase in out outbreaks
    mass production and distribution of processed foods and raw veggies
  85. hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)
    • new approach to regulating the food industry 
    • based on principles that are more systematic and scientific than previous random-sampling quality procedures
  86. HACCP projects are taking place in facilities that
    process cheese, breakfast cereals, salad dressings, and bread
  87. Many reported food-poisoning outbreaks occur where
    food contaminated food has been served to large groups if people
  88. Most cases of food poisoning probably occur in
    the home and are not reported
  89. it will never be possible to avoid all types of food borne illness because of
    the ubiquity of microbes in the air, water, food, and the human body
  90. food poisoning can be prevented by
    proper food handling, preparation, and storage
  91. method of food poisoning prevention:
    • preventing the incorporation of microbes into food 
    • removing or destroying microbes in food
    • keeping microbes from multiplying (hot/cold temp)
  92. What is common way to destroy microbial contaminations or reduce the load of microorganims
    heat
  93. Pasteurization
    application of heat below 100C to destroy nonresistant bacteria and yeasts in liquids such as milk, wine, and fruit juices
  94. What can render microbes free or relatively free of microbes
    cooking temperatures used to boil, roast, or fry foods
  95. Food storage
    a good directive is to store foods at temperatures below 4C or above 60C
  96. refrigeration
    reduces the growth rate mesophyllic bacteria by 10 times
  97. Some _______ microbes can continue to grow at a rate that causes food spoilage
    psychrotrophic
  98. What types microbes can continue to grow in refrigerated foods
    • Salmonella
    • listeria monocytogenes
  99. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation
    used to destroy microbes on the surfaces of foods or utensils
  100. Main class of chemical preservatives
    • organic acids
    • nitrogen salts
    • sulfur compounds
    • oxides
    • salt
    • sugar
  101. what was recently approved by the FDA to be sprayed on ready to eat meat products
    bacteriophages- only infect bacteria
  102. bacteriophages specific for
    Listeria
  103. Bacteriophages will act to
    kill the bacteria that would not be otherwise killed because cold cuts and poultry are usually not cooked before consumption
  104. industrial microbiology
    large scale commercial enterprise that uses microorganisms to manufacture consumable materials
  105. industrial microbiology bulk production of
    organic compounds such as antibiotics, hormones, vitamins, acids, solvents, and enzymes
  106. Aim of industrial microbiology
    produce chemicals that can be purified and packaged for sale or use in other commercial products
  107. Biofuels use
    use cyanobacteria and algal species
  108. biofuels would replace
    gasoline and jet fuel
  109. microorganisms produce major
    pharmaceutical substances, food additive, and solvents
  110. Hyperthermophiles adapted for
    high temperature detergent and enzyme production
  111. Psychrophiles used for
    cold processing of reagents for molecular biology and medical test
  112. Halophiles effective for
    processing of salted foods and dietary supplements
  113. healthcare products derived from microbial biosynthesis are
    antibiotics, hormones, vitamins, and vaccines
  114. the first mass produced antimicrobial was
    penicillin

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