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Patients who participate in research must sign this special document?
An informed consent form/document
This rule requires de-indentification of protected health information obtained via research studies.
- Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
Ethical research is based on what three principles?
- Respect for persons
You have agreed to participate in a study. The researcher states that your data will be de-identified. What does that mean?
Your name will not be associated with your data. You will be anonymous
Mrs. Jones has agreed to participate in a study exploring causes for HIV infection. The researcher states to a colleague, “Did you know that Mrs. Jones developed HIV following a sexual encounter with an astronaut?” What ethical principle has been violated?
- Principle of Justice
- Right to privacy (a breach to confidentiality)
Today the wind will blow. Tomorrow it might snow. This type of reliability testing can only be used when the variable being measured doesn’t change over time.
Name the two types of stability reliability.
- Test-retest reliability – the stability of the measure to give us the same reading each time.
- Intra-rater reliability -Consistency with which one rater assigns scores to a set of behaviors on two occasions
Brian gives you an A+ on your assignment, but Dr. Smith is really mean, and only gives you a B-. This type of reliability could be used to assess whether the scoring approach of two different raters will produce comparable results.
Give an example of equivalence reliability.
Inter-rater reliability –will two different raters give the same results when measuring the same thing
Based on your home scale, your weight is within the normal range for your age, height, and gender. However, based on the scale in your nurse practitioner’s office, you find out that you are actually 10lbs heavier than you thought you were. Using your home scale to obtain weight data for a research study would result in what type of error?
- Systematic Error
- The scale consistently (systematically) doesn’t provide a valid measure of your weight.
You are a very picky professor who wants to make certain that students consider problems with measurement when critiquing a research study. What types of measurement problems could be considered as study limitations/threats to internal validity?
- Lack of evidence of instrument R&V based on past research
- The instruments have never been tested in the studied population
- Lack of consistent measurement approach/procedure
- Use of poorly calibrated instruments
This level of data can really mean that there is nothing to measure.
Ratio level data (there is an absolute zero).
The researcher is interested in heart rate changes due to an anxiety-relieving intervention. What factors related to data collection approaches might compromise the validity of the findings?
- Lack of research assistant training
- Inconsistent approaches (methods, timing)
- Poorly controlled environment
Three different nurses enter data into an excel spread sheet and they make several errors when doing so. What kinds of errors do researchers worry about?
- They enter the wrong data (wrong patient, wrong value, etc.)
- Data without codes (1 –male, etc.)
- Missing data
- Lack of unique patient ID numbers
- They falsify the data.
A researcher is conducting a multi-site study to alleviate anxiety. When testing the effectiveness of a deep-breathing intervention, what should be done to make certain that all patients at every site receive the exact sample intervention?
- Define the steps
- Train the staff
- Have consistent interventionists
- Test their competency
The best way that researchers synthesize and pool the findings from similar randomized, controlled trials.
They conduct a meta-analysis
Smarty-pants Rogers came up with a theory & process for how innovations are ultimately implemented into clinical practice. What’s the first step of this process?
Gaining knowledge regarding the problem using research evidence.
Nurses can be tough customers. Name a clinician-related barriers that will influence your ability to implement new evidence into your clinical practice:
- Colleagues do not read research reports
- Lack education about research process
- Colleagues do not believe research findings
- Colleagues do not know how to implement findings
Name the components of evidence-based practice
- Research evidence
- The patient’s situation and clinical condition
- The patient’s preference
- Clinical expertise
- Health care resources
A super research paper has description that is ample. What section in the paper will tell you about the sample?
The methods section
It’s all a great big secret. You don’t know where to look. You need a research sample of people who are crooks. What type of sampling approach should you use?
Network or snowball sampling
What’s the main advantage of using probability versus non-probability sampling as relates to sampling variation?
- Your sample will be more representative of the general population because everyone has an equal chance of being selected.
- It minimizes systematic bias/variation.
Stratified random sampling? You don’t know what that is? As a student in this research class, you should be quite the whiz. What’s the intended outcome of stratified random sampling?
Research participants with important characteristics that might influence the study findings are equally represented in the treatment groups.
What is the term used when research participants drop out of the study too early?
What approach do researchers use to recruit homogeneous samples for their studies? This approach provides control for extraneous variables.
They use an inclusion/exclusion criteria
A nurse researcher is conducting a study to test the effect of foot massage in relieving constipation. Study participants are post-operative patients on an inpatient unit. Name an extraneous or confounding variable that could jeopardize the study’s internal validity.
What are: opioid use, other concurrent medications, NPO status, type of surgery, hydration status, bowel medication usage, comorbid conditions such as IBS...