ABSITE chapter 6 antibiotics.txt

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alshada
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ABSITE chapter 6 antibiotics.txt
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2010-01-11 11:09:35
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antibiotics ABSITE
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ABSITE ch 6 antibiotics
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  1. Method that kills and inhibits organisms on the body
    Antiseptic
  2. Method that kills and inhibits organisms on inanimate objects
    Disinfectant
  3. Method that kills all organisms
    Sterilization
  4. Spectrum of bacteria/fungi treated with betadine
    GPCs, GNRs, NOT fungi
  5. Spectrum of bacteria/fungi treated with chlorhexidine
    GPCs, GNRs, fungi
  6. Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis (4)
    Penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams
  7. Inhibitors of 30s ribosome and protein synthesis (3)
    Tetracycline, aminoglycosides (tobra, gent), linezolid
  8. Inhibitors of 50s ribosome and protein synthesis (4)
    Erythromycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, synercid
  9. Inhibitors of DNA helicase (1)
    Quinolones
  10. Inhibitor of RNA polymerase (1)
    Rifampin
  11. Antibiotic that produces O2 radicals that break up DNA (1)
    metronidazole
  12. antibiotic that is a PABA analogue and inhibits purine synthesis (1)
    sulfonamides
  13. antibiotic that inhibits dehydrofolate reductase and inhibits purine synthesis
    trimethoprim
  14. mechanism of antibiotic resistance for PCN
    plasmids for beta lactamase
  15. mechanism of resistance for most bacteria
    transfer of plasmids
  16. mechanism of resistance for MRSA
    mutation of cell wall binding protein
  17. mechanism of resistance for VRE
    mutation in cell wall binding protein
  18. mechanism of gentamicin resistance
    modifying enzymes leading to decreased active transport
  19. appropriate vancomycin trough
    5-10
  20. appropriate gentamicin peak
    6-10
  21. appropriate gentamicin trough
    <1
  22. change to make when a drug peak is too high
    decrease dose
  23. change to make when a drug trough is too high
    decrease frequency of drug administration
  24. antibiotic to cover strep, syphilis, Neisseria meningitides, C. perfringens, beta hemolytic strep A, anthrax
    penicillin
  25. antibiotic to cover staph (MSSA)
    oxacillin, nafcillin
  26. antibiotic to cover what PCN does PLUS enterococci
    ampicillin/amoxicillin
  27. antibiotic to cover GPC (staph, strep), GNR, +/- anaerobes. NOT pseudomonas, acinetobacter, serratia
    unasyn, augmentin
  28. antibiotic to cover GPC, GNR +/- anaerobes, and pseudomonas, acinetobacter, serratia
    ticarcillin, piperacillin, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/sulbactam
  29. side effect of zosyn
    inhibits platelets, high salt load
  30. antibiotic to cover GPCs (staph, strep) NOT enterococcus
    • first generation cephalosporins (cefazolin, cephalexin)
    • antibiotic to cover GPCs, GNRs, +/- anaerobic coverave, less staph activity
    • second generation cephalosporins (cefoxitin, cefotetan, cefuroxime)
  31. antibiotic to cover GNRs, +/- anaerobes, not enterococcus, does cover pseudomonas, acinetobacter, serratia
    third generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefotaxime)
  32. antibiotic to cover GNRs, picks up pseudomonas, acinetobacter, serratia
    monobactam (aztreonam)
  33. antibiotic to cover GPCs, GNRs, anaerobes, NOT MRSA, enterococcus, proteus, pseudomonas
    carbapenems (meropenem, imipenem)
  34. adjunct for carbapenems that increases half life by preventing renal hydrolysis
    cilastatin
  35. antibiotic to cover GNRs, +/- GPCs, not enterococcus, pseudomonas, acinetobacter, or serratia
    bactrim
  36. antibiotic to cover GPCs, mostly GNRs, not enterococcus but does cover pseudomonas, acinetobacter, and serratia
    quinolones
  37. antibiotic to cover GNRs, disrupt calcium homeostasis. Good for pseudomonas, acinetobacter, serratia. No anaerobes
    aminoglycosides (gentamicin, tobramycin)
  38. antibiotic to cover GPCs; good for CAP and atypical pneumonia. Also a prokinetic for bowel
    macrolides (erythromycin)
  39. antibiotic to cover GPCs, enterococcus, C. difficile, MRSA
    vancomycin (glycopeptide)
  40. side effects of vancomycin (3)
    redman syndrome, nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity
  41. side effects of aminoglycosides (2)
    nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity
  42. side effects of bactrim (5)
    teratogenic, allergic reaction, nephrotoxicity, Stevens Johnson, hemolysis (G6PD deficient patients)
  43. antibiotics that covers GPCs, including MRSA and VRE (2)
    synercid (streptogramin-dalfopristin), linezolid
  44. antibiotics that cover GPCs, GNRs, and syphilis
    tetracycline
  45. antibiotic that covers anaerobes (3)
    clindamycin, metronidazole, chloramphenicol
  46. antifungal that binds membrane sterols and alters permeability
    amphotericin
  47. antifungal to give as empiric broad spectrum coverage
    fluconazole
  48. antibiotic to give for fungal sepsis
    amphotericin
  49. antituberculosis drug that inhibits mycolic acids
    isoniazid
  50. antituberculosis drug that inhibits RNA polymerase
    rifampin
  51. antituberculosis drugs (4)
    isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol
  52. antiviral drug that inhibits DNA polymerase. Used for HSV and EBV
    acyclovir
  53. antiviral drug that is used for CMV infection
    ganciclovir
  54. drugs effective for enterococcus (4)
    vancomycin, timentin/zosyn, ampicillin or amoxicillin, gentamicin with ampicillin
  55. drugs effective for pseudomonas, acinetobacter, and serratia (6)
    ticarcillin/piperacillin, timentin/zosyn, 3rd gen cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, meropenem/imipenem, fluoroquinolones

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