Psych History and Systems - People

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Psych History and Systems - People
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2015-04-27 04:00:33
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The psychologist throughout history
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  1. Asch, S.
    • conformity experiment – change
    • in perspective due to what the crowd is saying
  2. Binet, A.
    • ·        
    • Measured intelligence and mental ability to try to predict student
    • success

    • ·        
    • Developed Binet-Simon test/scale
    • (1899)– power test measured limits by increasing difficulty of questions and
    • see for how long they can go – this is an individual not a group test (which
    • require literacy questions not oral) so individual tests measure power not speed
    • of testing, recall not recognition of answers is required, and the subjects can
    • be illiterate

    • ·        
    • Binet
    • and Henri developed a more complex study later on mental processing (memory
    • test, imagery, attention, motor skill, suggestibility, etc.)

    • ·        
    • Measured mental age relative to other people, then ratio’d it with
    • their chronological age to find out if they were advanced or retarded (Terman
    • translated it into Stanford-Binet test
    • and applied it to military (Binet meant it for children) had a mental age of
    • 13, which makes the scale questionable)

    • ·        
    • Claimed that intelligence could grow over time while Spearman said
    • it was a constant; Spearman was all theory (abstract) and Binet was application
    • and the two didn’t talk, but modern intelligence assessment focuses on Binet
  3. J. Mckeen Cattell
    • ·        
    • 1880’s

    • ·        
    • Under Wundt, started Pscyh. Review, and established Psychology as
    • a legitimate academic field “the dean of American Science,” pacifist

    • ·        
    • Functionalist – contrasted to structuralist in that you care about
    • why (the causes) of a reaction, and want to be able to predict the reaction
    • based on capacities and capabilities

    • ·        
    • Studied “simple mental processes” such as just noticeable
    • differences (JND), association (controlled with a prompt and free with “first
    • thing that comes to mind”), psychophysics, reading, and reaction time
  4. R.B. Cattel
    • ·        
    • Brought to America from England by E. Thorndike in 1937

    • ·        
    • Personality psychology

    • ·        
    • Developed trait theory in order to describe personality and
    • classify people based on specific adjective-lexicon

    • ·        
    • Supported the scientific method in psychology and thus a
    • statistical approach using factor analysis

    • ·        
    • Sorted allport traits into yes/no 160 bipolar clusters, then
    • reduced to 35 clusters, and produced the 16-factor personality model (average
    • is in the middle of a trait, but to have an ability, you want to be on one side
    • of the extreme)

    • ·        
    • Fiske developed Five-Factor model from Cattell’s data

    • ·        
    • Developed the idea of two-types of intelligence – crystallized and
    • fluid

    • ·        
    • “Grand theory” where personality, motivation, and intelligence
    • guides knowledge towards crystallization

    • ·        
    • Cattell,
    • Horn, Carol Theory (CHC) established no general intelligence, thus incomplete
    • hierarchy with nothing at the top, and fluid, crystallized, speedy, and
    • visualization along the bottom and relate to one another – developmentally,
    • there is different growth and decline
  5. L.J. Cronbach
    • ·        
    • 1957 and 1975/7

    • ·        
    • Aptitude-treatment interactions – how does treatment (computer vs.
    • lecture) connect to performance? – regress aptitude and performance for both
    • treatment styles, and find interaction – lower aptitude did better with one
    • treatment, higher aptitude with the other

    • ·        
    • Combined experimental with correlational psychology

    • ·        
    • Cronbach
    • and Snow (1977) developed aptitude and instructional treatments – large
    • impact on education approaches

    • ·        
    • Treatment interactions also applied to psychopathology
  6. Eleanor Gibson
    • ·        
    • 1957

    • ·        
    • Developmental psychology and perceptual learning

    • ·        
    • Believed that perception was adaptive, in that we learn how to
    • perceive the world around us

    • ·        
    • “Virtual cliff” experiment where toddlers and animals avoided the
    • edge of a table
  7. J.P. Guilford
    • ·        
    • 1956

    • ·        
    • Developed from Thurstone
    • for measurement of abilities

    • ·        
    • Structure of Intellect Model – psychometric study of intelligence,
    • developed 120 mental abilities from theory (3 categories, Content, Product, and
    • Operation) and made plan for assessment using this measurement
  8. G.S. Hall
    • ·        
    • 1887 – founded American Journal of Psychology, 1889 – Clark U
    • first president, 1892 – APA first president

    • ·        
    • Functionalist (interested in sensation and perception)

    • ·        
    • Studied under Wundt

    • ·        
    • Education and child (Developmental) psychology
  9. W. James
    • ·        
    • 1875

    • ·        
    • Physician to philosopher to psychologist

    • ·        
    • Mentored to Cattell

    • ·        
    • “Father of American psychology” – armchair scientist

    • ·        
    • Idea of consciousness from Wundt’s “stream of thought” (cannot
    • replicate a specific state of mind) – consciousness is personal, ever-changing,
    • and selective and choosing

    • ·        
    • James-Lange
    • Theory of Emotions`- opposite causation of emotions than what we
    • normally thing (feel sorry because we cry) – mind reacting to physiology

    • ·        
    • Worked with teachers in education, but did not contribute
    • empirical data

    • ·        
    • Believes a psychologists role in social policy is only observation
    • and explanation (NO clinical treatment)
  10. L. Kohlberg
    • ·        
    • 1958

    • ·        
    • Stages of Moral Development – six hierarchical stages of
    • development of moral reasoning which get better and better at handling moral
    • dilemmas
  11. T. Kuhn
    • ·        
    • 1962

    • ·        
    • Wrote the Structure of Scientific Revolutions – theories and
    • fields of science don’t progress linearly, but often through rapid twists and
    • turns, coined “Paradigm-shift”

    • ·        
    • We cannot truly objectively observe the world because it is always
    • based on perception – all data is laden with theory because we always search
    • for data with intentions

    • ·        
    • Normal Science is a gradual building of a paradigm, Revolutionary
    • Science is a paradigm shift with huge levels or progress

    • ·        
    • Normal Science has a cautious conjecture but has more payoff for
    • falsification (higher chance especially if measure is diagnostic) and occurs
    • much more often

    • ·        
    • Revolutionary Science has a bold conjecture and has very little
    • payoff if falsified, and is rarely confirmed
  12. H. Munsterberg
    • ·        
    • 1910, died early due to stress of being German in America during
    • WWI

    • ·        
    • Pioneer of applied psychology, which expanded to a contribution to
    • I/O Psychology

    • ·        
    • I/O Psych – motormen study – tested the driving abilities of
    • workers (1911)

    • ·        
    • Disagreed with Wundt’s objective observation philosophy towards
    • psych. And believed that psychology should be applied practically

    • ·        
    • Agrees with James in that emotion and feeling are a result of our
    • prepared behavior in a situation
  13. K. Popper
    • ·        
    • 1950

    • ·        
    • Rejected the inductivist method of science by Bacon (make observation, make general theory, make more
    • observations, make more general theory, etc.)

    • ·        
    • Scientific method of empirical falsification – theory can never be
    • proven, just falsified, and the more scrutinizing tests it passes the more
    • secure it is

    • ·        
    • Statements must be both VERIFIABLE and FALSIFIABLE

    • ·        
    • Theory gives the implication that a particular data is predicted,
    • it does not demonstrate the data

    • ·        
    • If hypothesis has TMA statements, the hypothesis implies the data

    • ·        
    • Modus ponenes (Affirm) – H>>D + H = D – hypothesis implies
    • data, hypothesis is true, data will ocurr

    • ·        
    • Modus tollens (Deny) – H>>D + D’ = H’ – hypothesis implies
    • data, data is not found, hypothesis is not true (Absolutist says that theory is
    • immediately refuted)

    • ·        
    • Logical fallacy – H>>D + D = H – hypothesis implies data,
    • data is found, therefore hypothesis is true (this is not the case, as there
    • could be many reasons for the data)

    • ·        
    • Followed by Lakatos who sophisticated the falsification – a theory
    • can only be rejected once it has been falsified AND a new, better theory has
    • been provided (aka explain the original as well as predict new content)

    • ·        
    • 1. Problem Situation (didn’t get what you expected (D’) 2.
    • Conjectured Solution (the issue with the theory) 3. Deductive Elaboration (find
    • a better theory) 4. Attempted Refutations (try to knock down this theory just
    • like the last one) 5. Preference (verification doesn’t help, and falsification
    • doesn’t get published, so the longer the theory lasts the better it is)
  14. B.F. Skinner
    • ·        
    • 1950

    • ·        
    • Radical Behaviorism Science Philosophy – Experimental Analysis of
    • Behavior- inductive data driven observations, not the hypothetic-deductive

    • ·        
    • Was not strict with his operationalism, as long as the focus was
    • on conditioning, other concepts can be discussed – led to less sterile human
    • research

    • ·        
    • Stimulus/Response with operant conditioning (reinforcement, fixed
    • interval, etc.)

    • ·        
    • “Agent of Change” Incited social reaction with Walden II (utopia)
    • and books on education (developed teaching machines that failed due to lack of
    • variety)

    • ·        
    • Father of all animal research at the time

    • ·        
    • No free will, all based on action/consequence and reinforcement
    • >> led to social psych. On situational stimulus

    • ·        
    • Impact on child bearing as parents used “air crib” which was a
    • skinner box, and followed operant conditioning
  15. C. Spearman
    • ·        
    • 1904

    • ·        
    • Two-factor theory of intelligence – any test score comes from a
    • combination of general intelligence and from specific factor (specific to the
    • test i.e. it varies) – thus there are many specific factors

    • ·        
    • General intelligence factor “g” – score factor that is constant
    • throughout all tests (specific factor varies between tests) – measurement of “mind
    • power” that is inherent and cannot change and is applied to everything – if you
    • are good at one thing than you are likely to be good at another

    • ·        
    • Studied under Wundt

    • ·        
    • Thomson and Kelly pointed out that multiple tests showed general
    • intelligence varied and there were more factors and Spearman just wanted to
    • throw out and ignore any data that didn’t fit the theory

    • ·        
    • Disagreed with Thurstone
    • who said there were many abilities which could change and relate to one another

    • ·        
    • Theory only, did not care about application (and now tests use Binet’s applied science and not
    • Spearman’s abstract approach
  16. E.L. Thorndike
    • ·        
    • 1912

    • ·        
    • Teachers College at Columbia

    • ·        
    • Father of Modern Educational Psychology

    • ·        
    • Animal intelligence, law of effect, trail and error, education,
    • father of connectionism (Associationism)

    • ·        
    • Refuted animal intelligence - they do not think through things
    • like humans, but must have instrumental trial and error until success

    • ·        
    • + Woodworth = discrediting “transfer of training” saying that learning
    • latin will help you learn English – Identical Elements Theory of Transfer said
    • transfer can only be with identical stimulus – debunked Formal Theory of Brain
    • where each region had a job and training spread to all areas which use that
    • function

    • ·        
    • Behaviorism – animal intelligence tested by puzzle box – put cat
    • in, reward behavior – developed Law of Effect and got quantitative data that
    • structuralists could not get

    • ·        
    • Education – developed a college entrance exam (group test), and
    • College Entrance Exam Board was precursor to SAT (1926), educational psychology
    • books, aviation pscyh. Research

    • ·        
    • I/O Psychology – workplace conditions, personnel selection,
    • education, learning theory

    • ·        
    • Law of Effect –used instrumental learning where the subject must
    • act in order to learn (cat has to push a level to get out of the box) -  knowing the effect (results) would affect the
    • learning – if an action produces a satisfying response, it is much more likely
    • to occur again (reinforcement), and opposite is true for dissatisfying (reward
    • better than punishment)

    • ·        
    • Connectionism – mental phenomena explained by interconnected
    • networks of simple units – Father by showing learning curves of animals by
    • trial and error
  17. L.L. Thurstone
    • ·        
    • 1930

    • ·        
    • Multiple Common Factor Analysis – expanded beyond Spearman’s single “g” factor with
    • primary abilities, put ‘em at odds

    • ·        
    • Primary Mental Abilities – Space, Perceptual Speed, Number, Verbal
    • Meaning, Word Fluency, Memory, Inductive Reasoning – everybody can be good at
    • something, and there are strengths and weaknesses (you don’t have to have a
    • high “G” to be good) – expanded the field of ability measurements
    • (psychometrics) – claimed that they are NOT related (aka uncorrelated)

    • ·        
    • Test Battery – expressed strength and weakness of each ability
    • compared to 50% average

    • ·        
    • Primary abilities combined with Spearman “g” by Vernon into hierarchy
    • where g is at the top and branches into abilities (claimed g accounts for 50%
    • of variance in everything) which all relate to one another

    • ·        
    • Program evaluations?
  18. E.B. Titchener
    • ·        
    • 1896

    • ·        
    • Studied under Wundt (who he followed strictly)

    • ·        
    • Structuralist

    • ·        
    • Took associationism of Wundt, and looked at elements of
    • consciousness instead of their interactions

    • ·        
    • Titchener-Baldwin Controversy – each came up with different values
    • when studying sensation and muscle reaction, Baldwin used untrained subjects
    • and claimed that Titchener’s subjects were trained and selected towards his
    • theory and did not account for individual differences, Titchener thought
    • Baldwin was bad science for caring about personal differences

    • ·        
    • Baldwin was chosen to be correct while Titchener was isolated for
    • focusing on introspective psych, and used baldwins selection of civilian
    • subjects
  19. J. Watson
    • ·        
    • 1913

    • ·        
    • Founder of Behaviorism – reaction to consciousness psych. And believed
    • that experiments should involve direct observation of events (i.e. actions)
    • (reject consciousness) – produced quantifiable data

    • ·        
    • Argued against introspectionism because you can’t read peoples
    • mind, wants to focus on the source of the data (Actions) – open-field
    • observation, learning (discrimination), conditioned response (implicit
    • learning)

    • ·        
    • “Unsophisticated Behavioralist” – subject is defined by stimulus
    • and response from that stimulus, look at S/R relationship

    • ·        
    • Philosophy - Drew from operationism in that there was an explicit
    • definition that was followed as well as logical positivism – confirmation process
    • – Justification where repeating study isn’t enough, set up the experiment where
    • the theory would occur and see what is observed

    • ·        
    • Rejected Gestalt Psychology because it used a verbal report from
    • the subject

    • ·        
    • Social –“agent of change”- nurture over nature, environment over
    • genes; situational stimulus would predict zero variability in social behavior

    • ·        
    • Application of behaviorism – ruined child-rearing by claiming that
    • children should not be coddled and treated like young adults, eventually moved
    • into advertising

    • ·        
    • Different from Skinner (who
    • moved more towards Radical behaviorism) in
    • that he only cared about basic operationalism  - never move away from what can be observed
  20. Max Wertheimer
    • ·        
    • 1910

    • ·        
    • University of Prague (Austria-hungary)

    • ·        
    • Founder of Gestalt Psychology – against Wundt’s structuralism (therefore similar to functionalist) in which
    • data is based on the phenomena of the whole which was greater than the sum of
    • its parts – the whole is not affected by the situation, and any alteration
    • affects the object as a whole (field and field theory)

    • ·        
    • Phenomena of the whole indicates that meaning is implied (I see a
    • chair)

    • ·        
    • Wrote against elementism and associationism

    • ·        
    • Book “Productive Thinking” involved visualizing and manipulating
    • an object instead of memorizing formula

    • ·        
    • Phi phenomenon – optical illusion where the placement of two
    • lights sequentially where only location is changed produces the illusion of
    • movement of the object (due to continuity of time and space change) – led to
    • production of Gestalt as whole was more than sum
  21. W. Wundt
    • ·        
    • 1883

    • ·        
    • Father of Experimental Psychology

    • ·        
    • Associationism and apperception (assimilation of observations into
    • concept you are already familiar with – “looks like a chair”)

    • ·        
    • Structuralist – report on sensation with no meaning – sensation is
    • dependent on time and place

    • ·        
    • Avoid the mind/body side of philosophy, and focus on connecting the
    • mind with the experience

    • ·        
    • Mental processes are elemental processes, and the assimilation of
    • these elements leads to association

    • ·        
    • Visual size, color-blindness, negatives, senses (all with trained
    • observers) and measuring reaction time

    • ·        
    • Did NOT care about application such as clinical psychology
  22. Robert Zajonc
    • ·        
    • 1923-2008

    • ·        
    • Social psychologist on social and cognitive processes

    • ·        
    • Mere-exposure effect – repeated exposure to stimulus changes
    • attitude towards it

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