Geology Lab Vocab pt.1

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Geology Lab Vocab pt.1
2015-04-27 08:45:09
Geology lab

Geology Lab Vocab pt.1
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  1. Mineral
    Inorganic, naturally occurring solids
  2. Rock
    Attached assemblage of minerals
  3. Amorphous
    without a clearly defined shape or form.
  4. Crystal form
    repeated regular arrangement of specific elements in a solid
  5. Cleavage
    a sharp division; a split.
  6. Moh's hardness scale
    A scale used to measure the relative hardness of a mineral by its resistance to scratching.
  7. Ten minerals of the Mohs scale from 1 on the scale to 10:
    talc, gypsum, calcite, fluorite, apatite, orthoclase, quartz, topaz, corundum, and diamond
  8. Conchoidal fracture
    a fracture that does not follow any natural planes of separation
  9. Striations
    linear furrows generated from fault movement
  10. Intrusive
    aka plutonic; igneous rock formed from magma forced into older rocks at depths within the Earth's crust
  11. Extrustive
    igneous volcanic rock formation in which hot magma from inside the Earth flows out (extrudes) onto the surface as lava or explodes violently into the atmosphere to fall back as pyroclastics or tuff.
  12. Phaneritic
    size of matrix grains in the rock are large enough to be distinguished with the unaided eye
  13. Aphanitic
    grains of a rock too small to be seen with the naked eye
  14. phenocryst
    a relatively large and usually conspicuous crystal distinctly larger than the grains of the rock groundmass of an igneous rock
  15. groundmass
    the finer grained mass of material in which larger grains, crystals or clasts are embedded
  16. Bowen's reaction series - high crystallization temp to low crystallization temp
    olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite (black mica) orthoclase, muscovite (white mica), quartz
  17. Wentworth Grain size scale - small to large
    mud, silt, sand, gravel
  18. compaction
    the process by which a sediment progressively loses its porosity due to the effects of loading.
  19. Cementation
    hardening and welding of clastic sediments by the precipitation of mineral matter in the pore spaces
  20. Metamorphism
    the change of minerals or geologic texture in pre-existing rocks
  21. Foliation
    repetitive layering in metamorphic rocks.
  22. Regional metamorphism
    metamorphism affecting rocks over an extensive area as a result of the large-scale action of heat and pressure.
  23. Contact metamorphism
    metamorphism due to contact with or proximity to an igneous intrusion.