Geology lab vocab pt. 3

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Geology lab vocab pt. 3
2015-04-27 09:24:19
Geology lab vocab pt

Geology lab vocab pt. 3
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  1. Index fossil
    a fossil that is useful for dating and correlating the strata in which it is found.
  2. Radiometric age dating
    any method of determining the age of earth materials or objects of organic origin based on measurement of either short-lived radioactive elements or the amount of a long-lived radioactive element plus its decay product
  3. Isotopes
    each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, and hence differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties; in particular, a radioactive form of an element.
  4. Half-life
    the time taken for the radioactivity of a specified isotope to fall to half its original value.
  5. Contour lines
    a line on a map joining points of equal height above or below sea level.
  6. Index contour
    a contour line that is thicker than the rest and usually labeled with the elevation that it represents
  7. Relief
    difference in elevation between any two points
  8. Regional relief
    the difference in elevation between the highest and lowest points on a topographic map
  9. Gradient
    the degree of inclination
  10. Benchmark
    a mark on a permanent object indicating elevation and serving as a reference in topographic surveys and tidal observations
  11. Strike
    a line representing the intersection of that feature with a horizontal plane
  12. Dip
    the angle at which a planar feature is inclined to the horizontal plane
  13. Structural geology
    the study of the three-dimensional distribution of rock units with respect to their deformational histories.
  14. Topographic profile
    a cross sectional view along a line drawn through a portion of a topographic map
  15. Geologic cross-section
    An interpretation of a vertical section through the Earth's surface, most usefully a profile, for which evidence was obtained by geologic and geophysical techniques or from a geologic map
  16. Block diagrams
    a three-dimensional drawing representing a block of the earth's crust, showing geological structure
  17. Anticline
    a fold that is convex up and has its oldest beds at its core
  18. Syncline
    a fold with younger layers closer to the center of the structure.
  19. Monocline
    a bend in rock strata that are otherwise uniformly dipping or horizontal.
  20. Dome
    a feature in structural geology consisting of symmetrical anticlines that intersect each other at their respective apices
  21. basin
    a large low-lying area
  22. P-wave
    a longitudinal earthquake wave that travels through the interior of the earth and is usually the first conspicuous wave to be recorded by a seismograph