Intro 331

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Intro 331
2015-04-27 12:55:18

Introduction to Arab Culture
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  1. Tarab:
    Ecstasy over an experience most commonly a musical performance (described the emotional effect of music)
  2. Saltana:
    Higher and after effect of tarab, the ‘high’ after a concert.
  3. Takht:
    Orchestra of Middle Eastern music (oud, qanun, kamanjah, ney, rig, firqa)
  4. Oud:
    similar to banjo, fretless, shortnecked, used in arab music. “prince of tarab”
  5. Mahmoud Darwish:
    Palestiian national poet who was exiled for the rebellious content of his pieces. Constantly talks about the loss of the motherland and makes Palestine a metaphor for the loss Eden. Poems include “Identity Card”, “To My Mother”, “The Dice Player”.
  6. Ghassan Kanafani:
    Palestinan writer, leading member of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. Considered leading novelist of his era. Known for his portrayal of Palestinian peasants, author of Men in the Sun, Umm Saad and Land of the Sad Oranges. In Land of the Sad Oranges Kanafani raises awareness of Palestinian refugees and makes Oranges a symbol of Palestine, homeland and rememberance.
  7. 1948 (Nakba):
    Day of commemoration of the displacement that followed the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948. Many fled and were expelled after the 1948 Palestine War and Palestinians call this displacement an-Nakba or “catastrophe”.
  8. 1967 (Six-Day War):
    fought between Israel and neighboring states of Egypt, Syrira and Jordan. Led to airstrikes against Egypt, evacuation of Sinai (conquest of Israel), conquest of East Jerusalem and cease fire on the 11th of June.
  9. Intifada:
    (2 of them) guerrilla tactic uprisings of the Palestinian organizations such as PLO and Hamas against Israel. Means “flooding”, used as a term for populat resistance to oppression.
  10. olive trees / oranges / cactuses:
    Symbols in Palestinian literature such as Land of the Oranges to represent the purity of their people and the roots to which they connect and wish to someday get back to. The orange symbolizes the land of Palestine, productivity and rememberance.
  11. PLO:
    Palestine Liberation Organization founded in 1964 for the liberation of Palestine through armed struggle. The sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people which gained observer status at the UN in 1974. Has recognized Israel’s right to exist t in piece and rejected violence and terrorism and mostly controls the West Bank.
  12. Al-Aqsa intifada:
    The second intifada, allegedly provoked by the visit of the Prime Minister Sahron to the temple with body guards. Period of intensified Iralei-Palestinain violence. High number of casualities and marked by Palestinain suicide bombings and gunfire and fighting back of Israel with gunfire and air attacjs.
  13. Hamas:
    Founded in 1988 after 1st intifada to liberate Palestine. Palestinian Islamic organization, seen as a terrorist organization by many including UK and US, and non-terrorist by others (Turkey, China, Iran).
  14. Sephardim/Mizrahim:
    Jews of indigernour Arab (lived in historiacal Palestine for long time before Israel established), Central Asian and North African descent. Treated better than Palestinains but still heavily discriminated.
  15. Twelver Shi’ism:
    largest bransh of Shi’a Islam, they believe in twelve divinely odiained leaderks: the Twelve Imams, Mahdi the 12th one that is to return. Differ from Shi’ism in the role and number of Imams.
  16. Sectarian nationalism:
    Secterianism is the discrimination of different branches of groups, especially seen in religion. Explained though lip of Muslims into Sunni and Shi’a which give sunrest in many countries. Sunnis complain of discrimination by Iraq’s Shia majority government.
  17. Wahhabism:
    religious movement or branch of Sunni Islam described as orthodox, ultraconservative with purpose to restore pure monotheistic worship. Perfer to be calles Salafi, it is a revivalist movement centered on principle of tawhid or unity of God. (Saudi Arabia’s conservatism)
  18. Oslo Accords:
    Accords between PLO and Israel government. Oslo is a peace process aimeded to achieving a peace treaty based on UN to fulfill right of Palestinain people to self-determination.
  19. Mohammad Bouazizi:
    Tunsian fruit vendor who set himself on fire in front of government building in Tunisia because he was assaulted and humiliated by policewoman. Icon in Tunisia and Arab world and began large nonviolent riot seeking economic opportunity from Ben Ali, Tunisian Leader. Movement then became focused to remove Ben Ali for mistreatment and murder of his people. Important: first act against government in Arab uprisings.
  20. El Général- Hamada Ben Amor:
    Tunisian rapper whose song “Rais Lebled” is considered anthem od Jasmine Revolution, anti-regime lyrics, fame skyrocketed after he was arrested for his songs.
  21. Shadia Mansour:
    Female Palestinian rapper whose songs critize Israel Occupation and role in Gaza War and gender stereotyping.
  22. DAM:
    Palestinian hip hop group, means “blood” and “eternity”, fight oppression, Isreali Occupation, poverty and women’s rights.
  23. State of Emergency:
    Strips citizens from fundamental rights, gov can suspend functions of the executive, legislative or judiciary branch during this period. Syria state since 1963.
  24. Rentier states:
    states whose national revenue come from rent of indigenous resources to external clients such as oil. Examples: Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi, UAE, Iraq, Iran.
  25. Benefits of Compliance:
    Rentier states fail to develop politically because, in the absence of taxes, citizens have less incentive to place pressure on the government. Access to rent means state does not have to go hat in hand to its citizens for revenue, ensures that the state will be dominant economic actor and can attach itself to population thorugh ties of patronage.
  26. Patrilineality:
    family membership derving from and traced to his fathers lineage.
  27. Patriarchal connectivity:
    People don’t experience themselves as strictly separate or autonomous
  28. Relationality:
    description of a process by which persons are socialized into social systems that value linkage and sociability.
  29. Endogamy:
    Marriage within a small community, first cousins.
  30. Polygyny:
    Men can have more than one wife, 4 in Islam.
  31. Veiling practices:
    Part of arab culture for women, they do not want to be stared at.
  32. Arranged marriage:
    Practiced sometimes in Arab societies.
  33. Kinship:
    Idea of arabs that damily stays together, importance of the family structure. Family is more than family its your community, and economic events.
  34. blood/origins (damm/usul):
    community of shared blood and origins ,entire family
  35. iftar (Ramadan):
    evening meal after the daily Ramadan Fast, larfe family gatherings and bonding.
  36. Refrigeration:
    little amount or refrigerated dairy that Arabs eat, they do not save food for great periods of time.
  37. pastoralism (herd animals):
    Lamd and chicken are large source of food, no pork and little beef in the lamb. Animals raised to be slaughtered
  38. halal:
    Food that aren’t able to be consumed: pork, alcohol and animals killed incorrectly.
  39. grain/bread subsidies:
    breads and grains must be affordable to everyone, major staple in the diet
  40. Twitter “Egg”:
    Annonymous twitter accounts served to bash anyone who spoke badly about the government to discourage the continuity of such behavior.
  41. Bashar al-Assad:
    President of Syria form Ba’ath party
  42. Top Goon:
    game show used to make fun of Bashar who is accused of killing his own people and known as the people’s medium.
  43. Ramadan primetime:
    special TV season that happens around Ramadan. Controversial show Hoor Al Ayn explores terrorism and its effect on the Arab people
  44. Amr Khalid:
    Egyptian Muslim activist and TV preacher that stood agains Sadam Hussein, gives youn people ideas about the use of prayer and reasons for stying out of drugs, alcohol, ect..