Pharmacology- Final Set

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Mawad
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301626
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Pharmacology- Final Set
Updated:
2015-04-27 14:02:23
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vetmed pharm final
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vetmed extra info for final
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  1. Describe the phospholipase C mechanism.
    epinephrine binds to alpha receptor --> activation of phospholipase C --> breakdown membrane to inositol triphosphate --> IP3 causes release of intracellular calcium --> calcium acts through calmodulin to contract arteriolar smooth mm. --> increase BP
  2. Describe the mechanism of phospholipase A2.
    phospholipase A2 converts membrane phospholipids to arachadonic acid --> arachadonic acid is converted to leukotrienes and prostaglandins --> inflammation and pain (BLOCKED BY GLUCOCORTICOID)
  3. What is LC50?
    concentration in air or water at which half the population dies
  4. What is LD50?
    dose at which half the population dies
  5. What is TD50?
    dose at which half the population experiences adverse effects
  6. What is LOAEL?
    lowest dose at which there was an adverse or toxic effect observed.
  7. What is NOAEL?
    highest dose at which there was no observed adverse effects
  8. What are chromaffin cells?
    neuroendocrine cells in close proximity to pre-synaptic sympathetic ganglia; release catecholamines, ie. epinephrine and NE
  9. Diuretics acts by what cellular mechanism?
    osmotic pull through ion pump inhibition
  10. Describe a nicotinic ganglionic receptor as describes by SAR studies.
    quaternary nitrogen with 3 methyl groups (ie positive charge) separated from a carbonyl oxygen by 5.9A (molecule must have positive charge and carbonyl; extra C or replacing CH3 with C2H2 will prevent or decrease binding to receptor)
  11. Potency is a measure of ________ at the site of action.
    affinity
  12. An agonist has both __(2)__ for the receptor.
    affinity and intrinsic activity
  13. As BP increases, _________ are stimulated and deliver a higher rate of impulses to the vasomotor of the brain; this causes... (3)
    baroreceptors; decreased HR, decreased contractility, and vasodilation of blood vessels
  14. Assessment of the relative safety of a drug derived from the extremes of the quantal-dose effect curves of the effects being compared.
    certain safety factor (CSF)
  15. All motor nerves of the somatic NS, all pre-ganglionic fibers of the autonomic NS, and all post-ganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic division of the ANS.
    cholinergic nerves
  16. A quantal relationship measures __________ responses.
    all-or-none
  17. Relationship in which the number or percent of individuals responding increases as the dose increases.
    quantal
  18. In the presence of an alpha blocker, epinephrine can only activate beta receptors, causing... (2)
    an increase in HR and a decrease in BP (without alpha blocker, it increases both)
  19. Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential (EPSP) is a graded __________ of a post-synaptic membrane in response to stimulation by a neurotransmitter.
    depolarization
  20. Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potential (IPSP) is a graded ____________ of a post-synaptic membrane in response to stimulation by a neurotransmitter.
    hyperpolarization
  21. Agonists possess __________, but antagonists do not.
    intrinsic activity
  22. Margin of safety is aka ____________.
    therapeutic index
  23. ED50 can only be determined from data involving _________ responses.
    quantal (all-or-none)
  24. For quantal response data, _______ and _______ cannot be determined.
    ED0; ED100
  25. Junction b/w an autonomic neuron and and effector organ or cell.
    neuroeffector junction
  26. A partial agonist has less ________ than a full agonist and therefore, it may act as a(n) _________ to the full agonist.
    intrinsic activity; competitive antagonist
  27. When the antagonist combines reversibly with the same binding sites as the agonist and can be displaced from these sites by an excess of agonist.
    competitive/ surmountable antagonism
  28. When the antagonist binds irreversibly and the effects of the antagonist cannot be overcome by increasing the concentration of agonist.
    non-competitive/ insurmountable antagonism
  29. If two drugs are not both capable of producing the same maximum efficacy, they cannot be compared with respect to ________.
    potency
  30. Capacity of a drug to manifest its effects by a singe mechanism of action at a single receptor type; all effects are produced due to a single receptor mechanism.
    specificity
  31. A drug's capacity to produce one particular effect in preference to others.
    selectivity
  32. With ___________, the total number of available receptors does not change, only the sensitivity of the individual receptors changes.
    desensitization (depolarizing block)
  33. With ___________, the ability to alter the number of receptors available to interact with an agonist, either causing an increase or decrease in a drug response.
    up- or down-regulation
  34. Lidocaine is a __________ that blocks the opening of ______________.
    weak base; cholinergic nicotinic sodium channels of skeletal muscle

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