shear wave; a seismic body wave that shakes the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction the wave is moving.
surface seismic waves that cause horizontal shifting of the Earth during an earthquake.
A central point or region, such as the point at which an earthquake starts.
the point on the earth's surface vertically above the focus of an earthquake.
an embankment built to prevent the overflow of a river.
the outside bank of a water channel (stream), which is continually undergoing erosion.
a curved lake formed at a former oxbow where the main stream of the river has cut across the narrow end and no longer flows around the loop of the bend.
a long, steep slope, especially one at the edge of a plateau or separating areas of land at different heights.
the geomorphic process by which soil, sand, regolith, and rock move downslope typically as a mass, largely under the force of gravity, but frequently affected by water and water content as in submarine environments and mudslides.
a form of mass wasting that occurs when a coherent mass of loosely consolidated materials or rock layers moves a short distance down a slope.
stretches along the coast that have been inundated by the sea due to a relative rise in sea levels.
stretches along the coast that have been exposed by the sea due to a relative fall in sea levels.
a breakwater constructed to protect or defend a harbor, stretch of coast, or riverbank.
a rigid hydraulic structure built from an ocean shore (in coastal engineering) or from a bank (in rivers) that interrupts water flow and limits the movement of sediment; a large jetty
a wall or other structure designed to protect coastal land from the battering of the waves
a wall or embankment erected to prevent the sea from encroaching on or eroding an area of land.
a long narrow island lying parallel and close to the mainland, protecting the mainland from erosion and storms.
a bar of sand or shingle joining an island to the mainland.
an island connected with the mainland by a tombolo
Zone of saturation
the area in an aquifer, below the water table, in which relatively all pores and fractures are saturated with water.
Zone of aeration (vadose Zone)
Region in the ground in which pore spaces are filled with air.
the state or quality of a material or membrane that causes it to allow liquids or gases to pass through it.