Anatomy- Pelvic Limb Part 2.txt

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Anatomy- Pelvic Limb Part 2.txt
2015-04-30 15:57:23
vetmed anatomy pelvic limb

vetmed, anatomy of the pelvic limb part 2
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  1. What are the components of the reciprocal apparatus?
    superficial digital flexor and peroneus tertius
  2. What is the function effect of the reciprocal apparatus?
    stifle joint and hock joint must move in unison (ie. flex together and extend together)
  3. What is a pathognomonic lesion for rupture of the peroneus tertius?
    flexion of the stifle and extension of the hock at the same time
  4. What is the only muscle located at the metatarsus?
    short digital extensor m.
  5. Where can the lateral head of the deep digital flexor be appreciated?
    on both lateral and medial aspects of the limb (HUGE)
  6. What check ligaments are present in the equine pelvic limb?
    +/- distal check ligament from the DDF tendon (THERE IS NOT A PROXIMAL CHECK)
  7. What are the extensor retinacula of the pelvic limb?
    crural, tarsal, metatarsal, lateral
  8. The crural extensor retinaculum is aka ____________.
    proximal extensor retinaculum
  9. The tarsal extensor retinaculum is aka _______________.
    middle extensor retinaculum
  10. The metatarsal extensor retinaculum is aka ______________.
    distal extensor retinaculum
  11. The lateral extensor retinaculum holds the tendon of the ___________.
    lateral digital extensor m.
  12. The flexor retinaculum forms the ____________.
    flexor canal
  13. What structures pass through the flexor canal?
    combined tendon of the superficial and lateral heads of the DDF surrounded by the tarsal synovial sheath
  14. What is inflammation of the tarsal synovial sheath called?
  15. Where is the tarsal canal?
    opening b/w the central tarsal bone, tarsal bone 3, and tarsal bone 4
  16. What passes through the tarsal canal?
    perforating tarsal a.
  17. The ______________ is inconstant and forms b/w the skin and SDF tendon after trauma.
    subcutaneous bursa
  18. Where is the subtendinous bursa located?
    b/w SDF tendon and the tuber calcanei
  19. What bursa is on the medial aspect of the tarsus?
    cunean bursa
  20. What are the 3 ligaments of the coxofemoral joint?
    transverse acetabular ligament, round ligament of the head of the femur, accessory ligament of the hip
  21. Where is the transverse acetabular ligament?
    across the ventral aspect of the acetabulum, filling the acetabular notch
  22. The round ligament of the femur and the accessory ligament of the hip attach to the __________.
    fovea capitis
  23. The accessory ligament of the hip is an extension of the....
    prepubic tendon (thicken insertion of the rectus abdominis m.)
  24. What are the components of the stifle joint?
    femoropatella synovial compartment, 2 femorotibial synovial compartments, lateral and medial menisci, synovial fluid
  25. Describe the fibrous joint capsule of the stifle.
    common capsule that surrounds the entire joint
  26. What are the communications b/w the synovial compartments of the stifle joint?
    ALWAYS a communication b/w the femoropatellar and medial femorotibial compartments; NEVER a communication b/w medial and lateral femorotibial compartments; 25% of horses have a communication b/w the femoropatellar and lateral femorotibial compartments
  27. What structure is underneath the patella?
    infrapatellar fat pad
  28. What are the components of the of the patellar loop?
    patella/fibrocartilage, medial patellar ligament, intermediate patellar ligament, tubercle of the medial trochlear ridge
  29. What is the purpose of the patellar loop?
    the medial and intermediate patellar ligaments lock around the tubercle of the medial trochlear ridge to lock the knee in a standing position; to unlock, contract quadriceps
  30. Describe the clinical condition of upward fixation. How is it treated?
    horse cannot unlock the stifle so they swing their leg out when walking; treat with medial patellar desmotomy
  31. What lymph nodes are enlarged with gonitis?
    lateral iliac ln.
  32. What are the components of the flexor canal?
    flexor retinaculum over the tarsal groove
  33. The sustenaculum tali is on the ____________ surface of the talus.
  34. What are the synovial compartments of the hock joint from proximal to distal?
    tarsocrural, proximal intertarsal, distal intertarsal, tarsometatarsal
  35. Describe the communications b/w joint compartments of the hock joint.
    always a communication b/w the tarsocrural and proximal intertarsal joints; 38% of horses have a communication b/w the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints
  36. What are the joint pouches of the hock joint?
    dorsal joint pouch, medioplantar joint pouch, lateroplantar joint pouch
  37. Where is the subtendinous bursa located?
    b/w the point of the hock and the SDF tendon
  38. What is the medial tendon of the cranial tibial m. aka?
    cunean tendon or jack cord
  39. Which LEG muscle does not have a tendon sheath?
    gastrocnemius because it insert directly on the hock
  40. What are the retinacula of the hock joint?
    dorsal extensor retinacula (of which there are 3), lateral extensor retinaculum, flexor retinaculum
  41. What are the 3 dorsal extensor retinacula?
    crural/proximal extensor retinaculum, tarsal/ middle extensor retinaculum, metatarsal/distal extensor retinaculum
  42. What tendon does the tarsal sheath cover?
    combined tendon of the lateral and superficial heads of the DDF tendon
  43. Where is the long plantar ligament?
    along the caudal plantar aspect of the tuber calcanei to the proximal metatarsus
  44. What is curb?
    enlarged long plantar ligament due to trauma
  45. What are the insertions of the peroneus tertius tendon?
    dorsal and lateral tendons
  46. What are the insertions of the cranial tibial tendon?
    dorsal and medial tendons
  47. What is the most superficial ligament at the back of the fetlock?
    plantar annular ligament
  48. What ligament is immediately deep to the plantar annular ligament?
    plantar ligament
  49. What is the plantar ligament aka?
    intersesamoidean ligament
  50. What ligament below the fetlock is X-shaped?
    proximal digital annular ligament
  51. What ligament below the fetlock is crescent-shaped?
    distal digital annular ligament
  52. What 2 tendons/ligaments fuse to insert on the extensor process of PIII?
    long digital extensor tendon and extensor branch of the suspensory ligament
  53. Where does SDF tendon insert?
    distal aspect of PI and proximal aspect of PII
  54. What is bog spavin?
    excess joint fluid causing distended joint pouches
  55. What is blood spavin?
    prominent cranial branch of the medial saphenous vein; misnomer
  56. What is bone spavin?
  57. Describe the spavin test.
    hold the stifle and hock in flexion for 2 min; if lameness increases, + bone spavin test
  58. What is capped hock?
    inflammation of the subcutaneous bursa
  59. What is stringhalt?
    condition of the lateral digital extensor causing involuntary contraction and flexion of the hock
  60. What are the main components of the stay apparatus?
    patellar locking mechanism, reciprocal apparatus, suspensory apparatus of fetlock
  61. What are the hooks and pins in ruminants?
    hook- tuber coxae; pin- ischiatic tuberosity