Psychology Intelligence and Personality
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What is intelligence?
The capacity to process information
What year was the test created and by who?
1905 by Albert Binet
What was the purpose behind the test?
- To find mental age
- To figure out which level kids should be in at school
What year was the test brought to the United States and who brought it?
1911 Louis Terman
What was the formula for calculating IQ?
mental age divided by chronological age * 100
(6/8) * 100= 75 IQ (Below average intelligence) (8/8) * 100= 100 IQ (Exact Intelligence) (8/6) * 100= 130 IQ (Above Average Intelligence)
What is the broad average range?
What is the below average range?
What is the above average range?
What is the gifted superior range?
What is the mental retardation range?
What are the two ranges where you would take the IQ test?
mental retardation and gifted
What are the two IQ tests?
- 1. Stanford Binet
- 2. Wechsler Scales
What is the difference between the Stanford Binet and Wechsler Scales?
- Stanford Binet carries all the questions from ages 2-adults
- The Wechsler scales, the questions are split up into scales in a suitcases (WIsC and WAIS)
What are the three reasons Why we take the two tests?
- 1. Standardized
- 2. Validity
- 3. Reliability
how are the two test standardized?
- questions don’t change
- done all at once
- Verbal (cognitive, asking questions verbally, multiple choice)
- performance (blocks, puzzles, picture completion)
How is the test valid?
It is valid in being able to test intelligence
How is the test reliable?
- Being able to take the test in a few years and still get about the same score, but still same average range
- Being able to take the two tests and still get about the same score
What are the 3 theories of intelligence?
- 1. G Factor
- 2. Theory of Multiple Intelligence
- 3. Triarchic Theory
Who created the G factor theory?
What is the g factor?
- Stating that your intelligence is generalized, that if you have low intelligence you will be low in everything you do, same goes for high
- Con- Can create high expectations and low expectations
What is the s factor?
Who created the theory of multiple intelligence?
What are the 7 theories of intelligence?
- 1. Spatial relations
- 2. Intrapersonal
- 3. Interpersonal (naturalistic)
- 4. Bodily kinesthetic
- 5. Musical
- 6. Logical/mathematical
- 7. Language
What is spatial relations?
person with great use of physical space, someone who can visualize things, creative ex. designers, artists, architect
What is intrapersonal
Person who is intouched with themselves, spiritually in touch, meditation, intouch with their emotions, ex. dali lama
What is musical?
ability to write, compose music, learn by ear, play am instrument
What is bodily kinesthetic?
coordination, motor control, people who can excel in sports, ex. athletes, contortionist
What is interpersonal (naturalistic)?
people skills, great communication skills, able to read and understand people, intuned with nature, environment ex. teacher, psychologist, nurse
What is logical/mathematical?
someone who has an ability of problem solving, allowing us to problem solve
What is language?
person who knows more than one language, someone able to speak one language but having a strong vocabulary ex. writers, author, public speakers
Who created the Triarchic Theory?
What are the parts of the triarchic theory?
- 1. Practical
- 2. Academic
- 3. Creativity
What is ideational fluency?
ability to come up with your own ideas
What is personality?
relatively stable pattern of behaviors, beliefs, motives, motives, thoughts, that make us unique
What is the evidence that nature plays a part in personality?
how long does temperament last?
Birth to 1
what are the three types of temperament?
- 1. easy
- 2. difficult
- 3. slow
What is meant by easy temperament?
child that is well adjusted, eat and sleep well, happy, content, smile a lot, transfer situations well
What is meant by difficult temperament?
does not eat well and spit things out, not sleeping well, agitated, irritated, crying a lot and seem unhappy
What is meant by slow temperament?
tartles easily, slow to warm up, anxious, shy
WHat is goodness of fit?
how well does the children and parents temperament get along with each other and connect, foundation for future relationships
What is self concept?
who we are
What is is self ideal?
self actualization, best possible self you could become, measure self concept by self ideal
What is self esteem and what does it do?
- If we are too far away from where we want to be it brings us low self esteem
- If you feel that you are on your way and are close you will have high self esteem
- Confidence is the driving force to keep you trying to reach self ideal, and high self esteem
- It is learned from our peers and what we hear from others
What are the 4 main theories of personality?
- 1. Psychoanalytic
- 2. Trait
- 3. Sociocognitive
- 4. Humanistic
Who is associated with psychoanalytic?
Freud Psychodynamic- seek pleasure and avoid pain, (ID, Ego (self), Superego)
- Psychosexual stages
- talk about how fixation affect personality
What is an individualistic?
define and describe ourselves as an individual, describing the behaviors, qualities, traits to define our action
What is a collectivist?
define ourselves into the groups we think we belong, or our roles ex, student, teacher, photographer
What are the 4 types of personalities in Hans Eysenk personality wheel??
- 1. Phlegmatic
- 2. Melancholic
- 3. Sanguine
- 4. Choleric
What is phlegmatic?
person who is introverted and stable, calm, peaceful and careful
What is Melancholic?
person who is introverted and unstable, pessimistic, moody,
What is Choleric?
person who is extroverted and unstable in emotions, touchy, restless, aggressive, anxious, impulsive, active,
What is Sanguine?
person who is extroverted and stable, outgoing, talkative, responsive, carefree, leadership
What is sociocognitive (social learning)?
we are a product of how we interpret our environment, learning how to make changes and be defeated by it
What are the three things in the sociocognitive perspective?
- 1. We choose our environment (sometimes)
- 2. We choose how to interpret our environment
- Glass half empty/ half full
- People who see it positive tend to be more successful
- 3. How we interpret determines who we are
What is humanistic?
Being all you can be, reaching self actualization
What should you do to reach self actualization?
What are the three types of goals?
- short term
- mid term
- long term
What would you like to do?
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