Parasitology- Part 3

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Mawad
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301647
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Parasitology- Part 3
Updated:
2015-04-27 22:26:55
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vetmed parasitology
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vetmed, parasitology part 3
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  1. [Cestode] The cestode life cycle is _________; __________ is required to complete the life cycle.
    indirect; at least one IH
  2. [Cestode] What is the DH and IH for Teniidae?
    • DH- carnivore
    • IH- herbivore
  3. [Cestode] The hyatid cyst of a cestode undergoes _________ repro.
    asexual (highly pathogenic species)
  4. [Cestode] The cysticercus stage of a cestode undergoes ________ repro.
    no (non-pathogenic species)
  5. [Cestode] What are the different types of Taenia IH stages?
    cysticercus, coenurus
  6. [Cestode] The DH of Taenia solium is a __________; the IH is a ________.
    human; pig
  7. [Cestode] Describe the life cycle of Taenia solium.
    proglottids break off and passed in feces --> oncospheres in gravid proglottid are ingested by pig --> excyst and latch onto pig intestine --> goes through intestinal wall to muscles --> human eats undercooked meat --> repeat cycle
  8. [Cestode] Dog and cat tapeworm that is zoonotic to people.
    Echinococcus
  9. [Cestode] Echinococcus granulosus DH is __________, IH is _______; transmission is by... (2)
    dog; many; eggs in feces, alveolar cysts
  10. [Cestode] Echinococcus multilocularis DH is _____________, IH is ___________; transmission is by... (2)
    cat/dog; many; eggs in feces, exogenous cysts
  11. [Cestode] Echinococcus granulosus has ___________ infective stage; the sylvatic cycle includes _________ and ________.
    unilocular hyatid cyst; canines; sheep
  12. [Cestode] Echinococcus multilocularis has ___________ infective stage; the sylvatic cycle includes ___________ and __________.
    multilocular hyatid cyst; foxes; rodents
  13. [Cestode] Why is the immune response so minimal with echinococcal cysts?
    the inside is antigenic but the fibrous capsule is of host origin
  14. [Cestode] Anaplocephalidae- Anaplocephala DH is __________, IH is __________.
    horse; arthropod
  15. [Cestode] Anaplocephalidae- Monezia DH is ___________, IH is __________.
    cattle; arthropod
  16. [Cestode] Describe the life cycle of Anaplocephala.
    Proglottids rupture before passage of feces --> ova taken up by mite --> cystocercoid in mite --> DH (horse) ingests mite --> mite breaks down in GI tract --> parasites mature and attach to intestinal wall --> passed in feces --> repeat cycle
  17. [Cestode] Cystocercus in ____________; cystocercoid in ___________.
    mammalian host; IH
  18. [Cestode] Describe the life cycle of Diplydium caninum.
    adult worms in canine SI --> gravid proglottids passed in feces -->segments/eggs in feces and on fur in perineum --> egg ingested by larval flea --> infectious larvae mature to adult flea --> adult flea ingested by dog --> repeat cycle
  19. [Cestode] Is Dyplidium caninum zoonotic to people?
    yes
  20. [Cestode] Diphyllobothirum latum DH is ___________, first IH is ___________, second IH is __________.
    dog; copepod crustacean; freshwater fish
  21. [Cestode] What kind of tapeworm causes macrocytic anemia in humans due to Vit B12 uptake into the worm?
    Diphyllobothirum latum
  22. [Cestode] Hymenolepididae is a ____________; its DH is __(4)__, IH is __(2)__.
    cyclophyllid tapeworm; humans, birds, rodents, dogs; flour beetles, fleas
  23. [Cestode] Mesocestoides can reproduce asexually in the dog ________; the _________ is the infective stage.
    GI tract; third larva- tetrathyridium
  24. [Nematode] Posterior end of some species of male nematodes.
    bursa
  25. [Nematode] Eggs that hatch after they have been laid by the parent.
    oviparous
  26. [Nematode] Larvae already developed in egg when it is laid.
    oviviparous
  27. [Nematode] Live larvae passed from adults.
    viviparous
  28. [Nematode] Superfamily Ascaridoidea- Do males have bursa? Eggs are ___________; there is/are __________ life cycle(s).
    No; oviparous; direct and indirect
  29. [Nematode] Ascaris are/ are not infective when shed.
    NOT (ie. clean up the environment)
  30. [Nematode] Describe the life cycle of Toxocara canis in an adult dog with no paratenic host.
    non-infectious egg passed in feces --> DH (dog) ingests --> in adult, immune response is mounted and larvae encyst --> no active infection
  31. [Nematode] Describe the life cycle of Toxocara canis in an adult dog with involvement of a paratenic host.
    non-infectious egg passed in feces --> paratenic host ingests --> larvae encyst and undergo further development in paratenic host (shorter pre-patent period) --> in adult, immune response is mounted and larvae encyst --> no active infection
  32. [Nematode] Describe the life cycle of Toxocara canis in a puppy.
    non-infectious egg passed in feces --> trasmitted to puppy transplacentally, transmammary, ingested directly, or ingestion of paratenic host --> no strong IR in puppies --> larvae pass through mucosa and travel to lymphatics --> larvae migrate to liver, lungs, and heart --> larvae are coughed up from lungs and swallowed --> go to GI and cause patent infection --> repeat cycle
  33. [Nematode] Superfamily Ascaridoidea are aka ___________.
    roundworms
  34. [Nematode] Superfamily Ancyclostomatoidea are aka __________.
    hookworms
  35. [Nematode] Superfamily Ancyclostomatoidea- do males have bursa? They have a(n) _________ life cycle, infecting hosts by ________ or __________.
    Yes; direct; skin penetration or ingestion
  36. [Nematode] Describe the life cycle of Ancyclostoma caninum.
    eggs passed in feces --> eggs hatch in environment to free-living stages (L1, L2, L3 infective) --> L3 infective stage is ingested or penetrates skin --> travels in blood to lungs, GI, and mammaries --> eggs passed in feces or larvae passed to pups in milk --> repeat cycle
  37. [Nematode] T/F "Strongyloides are considered Strongyles."
    FALSE
  38. [Nematode] T/F "Trichostrongyloidea includes Strongyloides."
    FALSE
  39. [Nematode] Which of the following are neither Trichstrongyloidea nor strongyles: Hamonchus, Cyanthostomes, Nematodirus, Strongyloides?
    Strongyloides
  40. [Nematode] Trichostrongyloidea are located in the _________ of _________; they have a(n) ________ life cycle.
    absomasum/SI; grazing animals; direct
  41. [Nematode] Superfamily Trichostrongyloidea- Ostertagia inhabits the _______ of _______; it causes __________ and can be distinguished by _________.
    abomasum; ruminants; abomasitis/death; hypobiosis
  42. [Nematode] Superfamily Trichostrongyloidea- Haemonchus inhabit the __________ of __________; it causes _________ and can be distinguished by __________.
    abomasum; ruminants; severe anemia; barber-pole appearance/ bottle jaw
  43. [Nematode] Superfamily Trichostrongyloidea- Nematodirus inhabits the _________ of ___________; it causes __________ and can be distinguished by __________.
    SI; ruminants; seasonal severe diarrhea; L3 develop within large egg/one generation per year
  44. [Nematode] Superfamily Strongyloidea- Large Strongyles infect the _________ of __(2)__; they cause _________ and can be distinguished based on __________.
    large intestine; horses and ostriches; severe anemia (adults), lesions (larvae); globular buccal capsule
  45. [Nematode] Superfamily Strongyloidea- Small Strongyles inhabit the _________ of __(2)__; they cause _________ and can be distinguished by __________.
    large intestine; horses and swine; poor doers; short cylindrical buccal capsule
  46. [Nematode] Cyathostomin is a ___________ that infects __________ seasonally.
    small strongyle; horses
  47. [Nematode] Large Strongyles- Strongylus vulgaris has larval stages in __(2)__, causing... (3)
    cranial mesenteric a. and ilocolic a.; colic, thrombus, death
  48. [Nematode] Large Strongyles- Strongylus edentatus has larval stages in __(2)__, causing... (4)
    liver and abdominal tissues; hepatitis, infection, anorexia, death
  49. [Nematode] Large Strongyles- Strongylus equinus has larval stages in ________, causing...
    liver; hemorrhagic tracts
  50. [Nematode] Superfamily Oxyuroidea- Oxyuris equi causes _________ in ________; they have a(n) ________ life cycle and inhabit the _________.
    pinworm infections; horses; direct; dorsal colon
  51. [Nematode] Of which type of nematode is there no free-living L3 stage in the environment?
    Oxyuris equi (pinworm- female lays eggs around perineum)
  52. [Nematode] Superfamily Trichonelloidea- Thrichuris is __________; hosts include __(5)__; they inhabit the ________ and have a(n) ________ life cycle.
    whipworm; ruminants, swine, cats, dogs, primates; large intestine; direct
  53. [Nematode] Describe the life cycle of Trichuris in dogs.
    eggs passed in feces --> eggs embryonate in environment --> embryonated eggs are infective stage- ingested --> eggs hatch and mature in large intestine --> adults lay eggs in large intestine --> repeat cycle
  54. [Nematode] Superfamily Filarioidea- Dirofilaria causes _______ infection; females are ________, producing offspring called _________.
    heartworm; viviparous; microfilaria
  55. [Nematode] Superfamily Rhabditoidea- Strongyloides have ______ and ______ forms; release _______ eggs.
    free-living; parasitic; larvated
  56. [Nematode] Superfamily Metastrongyloidea- Parelaphostrongylus inhabit the ________ of ________; we care about them because _________ are aberrant hosts; IH is _______.
    meninges; white-tailed deer; camelids; snail
  57. [Nematode] Superfamily Metastrongyloidea- Angiostrongylids inhabit the __(2)__ of __(3)__; they interfere with ________; IH is ________.
    vasculature or lungs; cats, dogs, rodents; breathing; snail
  58. [Nematode] Describe the life cycle of Parelaphostrongylus tenius.
    Larvae released in feces --> larvae ingested by snail --> snail ingested by DH (deer) --> L1 gets into circulation --> travels to meninges, gut, lungs, heart --> coughed up into environment, shed in feces --> repeat cycle

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