PSY: Personality

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  1. Personality definition
    • uniqueness; stability
    • you are the same individual with the same traits; changes are due to environments and experiences
  2. What do trait theories look for?
    characteristics; they believe that we have everything at various levels
  3. What are traits?
    relatively stable personal characteristic that can be used to describe someone
  4. factor analysis
    group traits into smaller categories
  5. Cattells 16PF
    variations in human personality could be best explained by a model that has sixteen variables (personality traits)
  6. What is the five factor model?
    five factor model made by Costa and McCrae

    • openness
    • conscientiousness
    • extraversion
    • agreeableness
    • neuroticism
  7. Psychoanalytic/ psychodynamic theories: 

    - who made them? 
    - what are the levels of consciousness? 
    - personality? 
    - psychosexual stages?
    - Freud

    - unconscious, conscious, preconscious, nonconscious

    - oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital
  8. Review of the ID, ego, and superego.
    ID: pleasure principle, sex/ aggressive drives, anxiety

    EGO: reality principle, balance, conscious reasoning, protects you from guilt

    SUPEREGO: morality principle, must be perfect; parental and societal standards; conscience
  9. Alfred Adler
    Inferiority complex: Adler's idea that feelings of inferioriry develop from early childhood experineces of helplessness and incompetence

    if you fail to strive for superiority, you have an inferiority complex

    everything you do is to accomplish some goal
  10. Carl Jung
    • said we have two unconsciouses
    • 1) personal: deeprooted stuff we can't get to
    • 2) collective: concept of a reservoir of inherited, universal experiences that all humans share; created by archetypes
    • --> two examples: animus (masculine traits) and anima (feminine traits)
  11. Karen Horney
    As people, we have to move in three different directions: toward people away from people, and against people

    • IF you don't have these, you have problems
    •  feelings of helplessness and insecurity= basic anxiety
  12. Humanistic theories assume four things?
    • all people are born good
    • all people have a drive towards growth
    • all people have a unique perception of the world
    • ultimate goal is self-actualization
  13. Carl Rogers Self Theory

    1) conditions of worth
    idea o knowing yourself

    1) when people view someone as only worthy under certain behaviors; the relationship is based on the condition of worth
  14. Carl Rogers Self Theory

    2) Unconditional Positive Regard
    2) Rogers' term for loving someone no matter what
  15. What is relevant to all people according to Rogers?

    congruence: when your self-evaluation matches other people's evaluations of you

    empathy: you actually feel for the person
  16. Congruence vs. incongruence
    congruence: well-adjusted person

    incongruence: when your self-evaluation doesn't match up with people's evaluation of you
  17. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    from bottom to top:

    • physiological 
    • safety
    • love/ belonging 
    • esteem
    • self-actualization
  18. Growth orientation vs. deficiency orientation
    focus on what you have and feel blessed vs. you focus on what you don't have and want what you don't have
  19. Social cognitive theory: Albert Bandura's Self-Efficacy
    • belief that you can do something
    • the higher it is, the more likely you'll be to reach your goals= the better and more stable your personality
  20. Measuring Personality: Interviews
    • unstructured: like a conversation
    • structred: list of questions
  21. Measuring Personality: Observations
    to watch/ being watched
  22. Measuring Personality: Objective Tests
    have set of answers and are standardized questionnaires that require written responses
  23. Example of Objective Test
    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2): a 500 + question test that is an example of objective test; testing to make sure/ see whether you do or do not have a mental disorder
  24. Measuring Personality: Aptitude vs. Achievement Tests
    aptitude: looking at someone's potential or readiness (ex: MCAT)

    achievement: how much they know/ learn (ex: psych final)
  25. Measuring Personality: Projective Tests
    do not have a specific set of answers; tap into the unconscious
  26. Types of projective tests?
    1) The Rorschach Inkblot Test: presents a set of cards with abstract patterns; response evaluated

    2) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): shows a series of black and white pictures and asks test taker to create a story related to each

    3) Person-house-tree test: draw that
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PSY: Personality
2015-04-28 02:47:39
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