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- uniqueness; stability
- you are the same individual with the same traits; changes are due to environments and experiences
What do trait theories look for?
characteristics; they believe that we have everything at various levels
What are traits?
relatively stable personal characteristic that can be used to describe someone
group traits into smaller categories
variations in human personality could be best explained by a model that has sixteen variables (personality traits)
What is the five factor model?
five factor model made by Costa and McCrae
Psychoanalytic/ psychodynamic theories:
- who made them?
- what are the levels of consciousness?
- psychosexual stages?
- unconscious, conscious, preconscious, nonconscious
- oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital
Review of the ID, ego, and superego.
ID: pleasure principle, sex/ aggressive drives, anxiety
EGO: reality principle, balance, conscious reasoning, protects you from guilt
SUPEREGO: morality principle, must be perfect; parental and societal standards; conscience
Inferiority complex: Adler's idea that feelings of inferioriry develop from early childhood experineces of helplessness and incompetence
if you fail to strive for superiority, you have an inferiority complex
everything you do is to accomplish some goal
- said we have two unconsciouses
- 1) personal: deeprooted stuff we can't get to
- 2) collective: concept of a reservoir of inherited, universal experiences that all humans share; created by archetypes
- --> two examples: animus (masculine traits) and anima (feminine traits)
As people, we have to move in three different directions: toward people away from people, and against people
- IF you don't have these, you have problems
- feelings of helplessness and insecurity= basic anxiety
Humanistic theories assume four things?
- all people are born good
- all people have a drive towards growth
- all people have a unique perception of the world
- ultimate goal is self-actualization
Carl Rogers Self Theory
1) conditions of worth
idea o knowing yourself
1) when people view someone as only worthy under certain behaviors; the relationship is based on the condition of worth
Carl Rogers Self Theory
2) Unconditional Positive Regard
2) Rogers' term for loving someone no matter what
What is relevant to all people according to Rogers?
congruence: when your self-evaluation matches other people's evaluations of you
empathy: you actually feel for the person
Congruence vs. incongruence
congruence: well-adjusted person
incongruence: when your self-evaluation doesn't match up with people's evaluation of you
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
from bottom to top:
- love/ belonging
Growth orientation vs. deficiency orientation
focus on what you have and feel blessed vs. you focus on what you don't have and want what you don't have
Social cognitive theory: Albert Bandura's Self-Efficacy
- belief that you can do something
- the higher it is, the more likely you'll be to reach your goals= the better and more stable your personality
Measuring Personality: Interviews
- unstructured: like a conversation
- structred: list of questions
Measuring Personality: Observations
to watch/ being watched
Measuring Personality: Objective Tests
have set of answers and are standardized questionnaires that require written responses
Example of Objective Test
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2): a 500 + question test that is an example of objective test; testing to make sure/ see whether you do or do not have a mental disorder
Measuring Personality: Aptitude vs. Achievement Tests
aptitude: looking at someone's potential or readiness (ex: MCAT)
achievement: how much they know/ learn (ex: psych final)
Measuring Personality: Projective Tests
do not have a specific set of answers; tap into the unconscious
Types of projective tests?
1) The Rorschach Inkblot Test: presents a set of cards with abstract patterns; response evaluated
2) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): shows a series of black and white pictures and asks test taker to create a story related to each
3) Person-house-tree test: draw that