Gastrointestinal System Final Review

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  1. Achalasia
    Lower esophageal sphincter fails to relax → food trapped in esophagus
  2. Referred GI Pain Patterns
    • Visceral pain from esophagus → mid back
    • Midthoracic spine/nerve root pain → esophageal pain
    • Liver, diaphragm, pericardium → shoulder
    • Gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, small intestine → midback/scapualr regions
    • Colon, appendix, and pelvis → pelvis, low back and sacrum
  3. GERD: Definition
    • Reflux/backward movement of gastric contents of stomach
    • Failure of lower esophageal sphincter and increased gastric pressure
  4. GERD: Symptoms
    • May present as head/neck pain
    • Wheezing
    • Cough
    • Laryngeal injury
    • Vagus-mediated bronchospasm
  5. Gastritis: Definition, Characteristics, and Symptoms
    • Inflammation of stomach mucosa
    • Symptoms: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and pain
    • Pts taking long-term NSAIDs → monitor for stomach pain, bleeding, nausea and vomiting
  6. Peptic Ulcer Disease: Definition, Symptoms, and Characteristics
    • Ulcerative lesions in upper GI tract
    • Symptoms: epigastric pain aggravated by change in position and absence of food in stomach (relieved by foot or antacids) 
    • Complications = hemorrhage, weakness, dizziness, signs of circulatory shock 
    • Pain from ulcers on post wall of stomach → refer to back and R shoulder
  7. Malabsorption Syndrome: Symptoms
    • Anorexia/weight loss
    • Pain/cramps
    • Steatorrhea (increased fat in feces)
    • Indigestion
    • Abdominal bloating
    • Diarrhea
  8. Malabsorption Syndrome: Red Flags
    • Iron-deficiency anemia
    • Easy bruising/bleeding: lack of vitamin K
    • Muscle weakness/fatigue: lack of protein, iron, folic acid, vitamin B
    • Bone loss, pain, increased fracture risk: lack of calcium, phosphate, vitamin D
    • Tetany, paresthesias, numbness/tingling: lack of calcium, vitamin B and D, magnesium, and potassium
    • Muscle spasms: electrolyte imbalance and decreased calcium
  9. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn's Disease & Ulcerative Collitis): Symptoms and Characteristics
    • Abdominal pain
    • Frequent diarrhea
    • Fecal urgency
    • Weight loss
    • Joint pain (reactive arthritis) 
    • Skin rashes
    • Pain referred to low back 
    • Nutritional deficiencies
    • Complications: intestinal obstruction and corticosteroid toxicity (low bone density, increased fracture risk)
  10. Appendicitis
    • Abrupt pain, epigastric/periumbilical area, increased intensity over time 
    • Blumberg's sign: rebound tenderness with depression of abdominal wall distant from painful area
    • McBurney's point: 1.5-2 inches above ASIS in R lower quadrant point tender
    • Increased WBC > 20,000 → indicative of perforation → SURGERY
  11. Peritonitis: Definition and Symptoms
    • Inflammation of serous membrane lining of abdominal cavity
    • Increased WBC count
    • Fever
    • Electrolyte imbalance 
    • Hypotension
    • Can lead to toxemia, shock, circulatory failure, and respiratory distress
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Gastrointestinal System Final Review
2015-04-28 04:03:25
Gastrointestinal System Final Review
NPTE,Final Review
NPTE: Final Review
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