Renal and Urological Systems Final Review

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Author:
dmshaw9
ID:
301673
Filename:
Renal and Urological Systems Final Review
Updated:
2015-04-28 00:06:39
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Renal Urological Systems Review
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NPTE,Final Review
Description:
NPTE: Final Review
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  1. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
    • Important gauge of renal function
    • Regulated by arterial BP and renal blood flow
    • Normal creatinine clearance = 115-125 mL/min
  2. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
    • Urea produced in liver as by-product of protein metabolism, eliminated by kidneys
    • Increased with increased protein intake, GI bleeding, dehydration
  3. Hypokalemia Symptoms
    • Muscle weakness
    • Aches
    • Fatigue
    • Cardiac arrhythmias 
    • Abdominal distension 
    • Nausea/vomiting
  4. Hyperkalemia Symptoms
    • Often symptomless until very high levels
    • Muscle weakness
    • Arrythmias
    • Tall T wave, prolonged PR int and QRS duration
  5. Hyponatremia Symptoms
    • Confusion
    • Decreased mental alertness → convulsions
    • Increased intracerebral pressure
    • Poor motor coordination
    • Sleepiness
    • Anorexia
  6. Hypernatremia Symptoms
    • Circulatory congestion (pitting edema, weight gain)
    • Pulmonary edema with dyspnea
    • HTN
    • Tachycardia
    • Agitation/restlessness 
    • Convulsions
  7. Hypocalcemia Symptoms
    • Muscle cramps/tetany/spasms 
    • Paresthesias
    • Anxiety/irritability
    • Twitching convulsions
    • Arrhythmias
    • Hypotension
  8. Hypercalcemia Symptoms
    • Fatigue
    • Depression
    • Mental confusion
    • Nausea/vomiting
    • Arrhythmias
    • Increased urination
  9. Hypomagnesemia Symptoms
    • Hyperirritability
    • Confusion
    • Leg & foot cramps
  10. Hypermagnesemia Symptoms
    • Hyporeflexia
    • Muscle weakness
    • Confusion/drowsiness/lethargy
    • Bradycardia
    • Hypotension
  11. Metabolic Acidosis Symptoms
    • Hyperventilation (compensatory)
    • Deep respirations
    • Vomiting/diarrhea
    • Weakness/muscle twitch
    • Headache
    • Dry skin and mucous membranes
    • Poor skin turgor
    • Stupor and coma (death)
  12. Metabolic Alkalosis Symptoms
    • Hypoventilation (compensatory)
    • Depressed respirations
    • Committing and diarrhea
    • Weakness/muscle twitch
    • Dysrhythmias 
    • Irritability/agitations
    • Convulsions and coma (death
  13. Respiratory Acidosis Symptoms
    • CO2 retention
    • Dyspnea/hyperventilation
    • Cyanosis
    • Restlessness
    • Headache
    • Disorientation, stupor, coma
  14. Respiratory Alkalosis Symptoms
    • Decreased CO2
    • Tachypnea
    • Dizziness 
    • Anxiety
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • Numbness/tingling
    • Blurred vision 
    • Diaphoresis 
    • Muscle cramps/twitching/tetany 
    • Weakness
    • Arrhythmias
    • Convulsions
  15. Murphy's Sign
    • Tenderness over costovertebral angle
    • Sign of Upper UTI
  16. Acute Renal Failure
    Increased serum urea and creatinine
  17. Chronic Renal Failure Symptoms
    • Dizziness, HA, anxiety, memory loss, inability to concentrate, convulsions, and coma
    • HTN, dyspnea on exertion, heart failure
    • Ischemic leg pain, painful cramps
    • Peripheral and pulm edema 
    • Muscle weakness, restless legs
    • Osteomalacia, osteoporosis, bone pain/fx
    • Pallor, ecchymosis, pruritis, dry skin
    • Anemia
    • Decreased endurance/functional loss
    • ANS dysfunction (decreased HR, BP, orthostatic hypotension)
  18. Dialysis Disequilibrium S/Sx
    • Rapid changes after beginning dialysis 
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Drowsiness
    • Headache
    • Seizures
  19. Dialysis Dementia: Signs/Symptoms
    Cerebral dysfunction (speech difficulties, mental confusion, myoclonus, seizures) → death!

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