ABSITE chapter 7 medicines and pharmacology.txt

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alshada
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3017
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ABSITE chapter 7 medicines and pharmacology.txt
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2010-01-11 11:09:22
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pharmacology ABSITE
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ABSITE ch 7 pharmacology
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  1. Drug administration routes that do not require passage through the liver first
    Sublingual, rectal
  2. Drug absorption limited to nonionized, lipid soluble drugs
    CSF absorption
  3. Molecule largely responsible for binding drugs
    Albumin (PCN and warfarin are 90% bound)
  4. Drug pharmacokinetics where a constant amount is eliminated regardless of dose
    0 order kinetics
  5. drug pharmacokinetics where drug elimination is proportional to dose
    1st order kinetics
  6. number of half lives to reach a steady state
    5
  7. amount of drug in body/amount of drug in plasma
    volume of distribution
  8. fraction of unchanged drug reaching the systemic circulation
    bioavailability
  9. drug level at which desired effect occurs in 50% of patients
    ED50
  10. Drug level at which death occurs in 50% of patients
    LD50
  11. Tolerance gained after only a few doses
    Tachyphylaxis
  12. Dose required for drug to take effect
    Potency
  13. Ability of a drug to achieve results without untoward effects
    Efficacy
  14. Inhibitors of P-450 (11)
    Cimetidine, isoniazid, ketoconazole, erythromycin, cipro, flagyl, allopurinol, verapamil, amiodarone, MAOIs, disulfuram
  15. Inducers of P-450 (7)
    ETOH, insecticides, cigarette smoke, Phenobarbital, dilantin, theophylline, warfarin
  16. Most important organ for eliminating drugs
    Kidney
  17. Water soluble drugs, more likely to be eliminated unaltered
    Polar (ionized) drugs
  18. Fat soluble drugs, more likely to be metabolized before excretion
    Nonpolar (nonionized) drugs
  19. Anti-inflammatory that binds tubulin and inhibits migration
    Colchicine
  20. Anti-inflammatory used in gout
    Indomethacin
  21. Xanthine oxidase inhibitor that blocks uric acid formation from xanthene, used in uric acid chronic overproducers
    Allopurinol
  22. Gout drug that increases renal secretion of uric acid; used for undersecreters
    Probenecid
  23. Dopamine receptor blocker that can be used to increase gastric motility
    Metoclopramide
  24. Serotonin receptor inhibitor used as an antiemetic
    Zofran
  25. Long-acting somatostatin analog
    Octreotide
  26. Drug that inhibits Na/K ATPase and increases myocardial calcium, increasing atrial contraction but slowing AV conduction
    Digoxin
  27. Drug used to treat torsades
    Magnesium
  28. Drug that causes transient disruption of the AV node
    Adenosine
  29. Best single agent shown to reduce mortality in CHF patients
    ACE inhibitors
  30. Drugs that reduce risk of MI and Afib postoperatively
    Beta blockers
  31. Acetylcholine antagonist that increases heart rate
    Atropine
  32. 2 drugs that inhibit adrenal steroid synthesis
    metyrapone, aminoglutethimide
  33. GnRH analog that inhibits LH and FSH release from pituitary
    Leuprolide
  34. Drug that acts on V1 receptors as a contrictor; can be used in GI bleeding by reducing blood flow
    Vasopressin
  35. Prostaglandin inhibitor used to close PDA in children; also used in gout
    Indomethacin
  36. PGE1 derivative used to prevent PUD
    Misoprostol
  37. Prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors, lead to dec mucus and HCO3- secretion and inc acid production
    NSAIDs
  38. Symptoms of ASA poisoning (5)
    Tinnitus, headache, nausea, vomiting, respiratory alkalosis then metabolic acidosis
  39. Treatment of Tylenol overdose
    N-acetylcysteine
  40. Fibrinolytic used in sepsis; inactivates the inhibitor of protein C
    Xigris (activated protein C)

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