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What are the basic elements of speech?
- Speaker (Sender), Message, Listener (Receiver), Channel, Feedback
- Noise (Phychological, physiological, and external)
- Context or Situation
Define Speaker (Sender)?
- Speaker encodes the message
- attitude: Self, topic(enthusiasm), audience
- has a goal or purpose
- has credibility: 1. knowledgeable about topic, 2. trustworthy/believable, 3. likability
- Message is verbal,
- non verbal: Paralanguage (use of your voice)
- style: choice of words, vocabulary
Define Listener (Receiver)?
- Receiver is the decoder (interpret)
- example: audience
- Channel is means, route, pathway
- example: emoticons
Feedback is receiver's response to the source's message
Define Noise (interference)?
- Noise is external noise
- Psychological noise
- physiological noise
Define Context or Situation?
Situation of circumstance
What are the types of Speech Delivery?
- Extemporaneous speaking
- Manuscript speaking
- Impromptu speaking
What is Extemporaneous speaking?
- Practiced and prepared in advanced
- sounds conversational: utilize your personality
- delivered from keyword/short phrase notes
What is Manuscript speaking?
- Memorized from a script
- word for word
- delivery without any text, notes, or outline.
Define Impromptu delivery/speaking?
- generating your speech content in the moment
- without time prepare in advance
What is Meta-message?
reading between the lines to figure out what someone really means
What is Proxemics?
- The use of space and distance between yourself and your audience
- related to physical movement
- you control how close you stand to your audience while delivering your speech
What is Chronemics (Body Clock)?
the time of day or day of the week when your audience members will be listening to your presentation
What is emblems?
specific gestures with specific meaning that are consciously used and consciously understood.
They are used as substitutes for words and are close to sign language than everyday body language.
What is illustrators
- Illustrators are speech-dependent gestures that are used relative to what is being said.
- They help to demonstrate words and/or messages during a speech
- Effective illustrations and gestures should be various so that they don't become too distracting
What are the elements of an effective speaking voice?
- Vocal variety
What is vocal variety?
- and demeanor of your voice to fit the words you are speaking
What is articulation?
- refers to the crispness or clarity of your spoken words.
- when you articulate, your vowels and consonant sound clear and distinct, and your listeners can distinguish your separate words as well as your syllables in your words.
What is dialect?
variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers and is distinguished by shared vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation.
What is volume?
the level of sound whereas power is the intensity of the voice
What is pauses?
- Give us time to recollect our thoughts,
- Make us appear more confident and in control, and
- Allow our audience time to keep up with, and process our message.
What is fluency?
the quality of speaking so that words and thoughts flow from your mouth in a gentle stream.
What is body orientation?
What is Demographics?
- The demographic factors of an audience include age, gender, religion, ethnic background, class, sexual orientation, occupation, education, group membership, and countless other categories.
- Since these categories often organize individual's identities and experiences, a wise speaker attends to them.
What is paralanguage?
- a component of meta-communication that may modify or nuance meaning, or convey emotion, such as prosody, pitch, volume, intonation etc.
- It is sometimes defined as relating to nonphonemic properties only.
What is Transitions in a speech (Signposts)?
a sentence that indicates you are moving from one part of your speech to the next
What are canons of rhetoric?
What is Ethos?
- credibility of speaker
What is Logos?
What is pathos?
What are the parts of a speech?
- A. Introduction: (Attention-getter, credibility statement, reveal topic, preview/purpose statement)
- B. Main points
- C. Conclusion: (review/summary, final thought provoking statement) for persuasive speech -add action
What is Monroe's Motivated Sequence?
- Build on the psychology of persuasion
- 5 stages:
- 1. Attention stage - get evidence/emotional appeals
- 2. Need stage - try to indicate the extent of problem, evidence
- 3. Satisfaction Stage - When you give your proposed solution
- 4. Visualization Stage - get audience to imagine how much better it can be, benefit from solution
- 5. Action Stage - tell the audience what they can do to help
What is Dogmatism or Dogma?
- High Dogmatism: when people are closed off to new information (close minded)
- Low Dogmatism: open to more information (open minded)
What are the characteristics of close-minded people?
- 1. Closed off to new information
- 2. To view world as threatening place
- 3. Lower differentiation, fewer categories
- 4. Higher prejudice
- 5. Lower Creativity
- 6. Tend to view authority as absolute
Types are the types of reasoning?
- A. Inductive reasoning
- B. Example reasoning
- C. Comparative reasoning
- D. Casual reasoning
- E. Sign reasoning
What is Inductive reasoning?
- a kind of reasoning that constructs general propositions that are derived from specific examples.
- probabilistic; it only states that, given the premises, the conclusion is probable.
What is Example reasoning?
- the use of examples in argument.
- The example may be told as a story or may be a short comparator.
- It may be a duplicate of the situation or may be a relatively distant metaphor.
- It may be of a known person, known situation or something not directly known to the other person.
What is Comparison reasoning?
- argue that two instances are similar, so that what you know is true for one instance is likely to be true for the other.
- establishes the importance of something by comparing it against something else.
What is Causal reasoning?
- the cause-and-effect that is in operation.
- Help the other person see why things have happened or will happen as they do.
What is Sign reasoning?
claiming that a face is true because indirect indicators (signs) are consistent with the fact
List the fallacies in reasoning?
- A. Ad populum fallacy
- B. Causal reasoning errors
- C. Straw person fallacy
- D. Slippery slope fallacy
- F. False dilemma fallacy
- G. Hasty generalization
What is Ad Populum Fallacy?
assuming that is a statement is true or false just because a large number of people say it is
What is causal reasoning fallacy?
post hoc fallacy; just because one event happened after another event, the first event caused the second event
What is Straw Person Fallacy?
replacing your opponent's claim with a weaker one so that you can easily rebut
What is Slippery Slope Fallacy?
argue against a policy because you assume (without proof) that it will lead to some second policy that is undesirable.
What is False Dilemma Fallacy?
claim that there are only two possible choices to address a problem
What is Appeal to Traditional Fallacy?
argue that an idea or policy is good simply because people have accepted or followed it for a long time.
What is Hasty Generalization?
when a speaker bases a conclusion on limited or unrepresentative examples.
What is Primacy Effect?
- Tendency for people in audience to be most to remember the beginning of a speech.
- Example: On TV game shows where people can win everything in a list of items they see, they usually at least remember the first few items.
What is recency effect?
Tendency for people in audience to be most to remember the ending of a speech.
What is Empathy?
the ability to not only detect what others feel but also to experience that emotion yourself
What is Self-monitoring behavior?
- high self-monitors constantly watch other people, what they do and how they respond to the behavior of others. Such people are hence very self-conscious and like to 'look good' and will hence usually adapt well to differing social situations.
- low self-monitors are generally oblivious to how other see them and hence march to their own different drum.
What is Self-concept?
how we view ourselves in relationship with others; social comparisons
What is Self-concept Support?
value, appreciate, and respect about communication
What is Credibility?
- The audience's perception of speaker if
- 1. Speaker is knowledgeable about topic
- 2. Speaker is likeable
- 3. Speaker is believable
What is Cognitive Complexity?
- Ability to look at a variety of things in a variety of different view points
- open-minded (tolerant)
What is interpersonal communication?
(qualifications) when one person treats another person as a unique, respected, and valued individual
What is Intrapersonal communication?
one person; thinking or talking to self; preparation in process, journal writing