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Purpose of the Superposition of Waves experiment
To obtain the resultant wave formed by the superposition of two traveling waves

Transverse Wave
The wave causes the medium to vibrate in a direction perpendicular to the direction of motion of the wave

Longitudinal Wave
The wave cause the medium to vibrate in a direction parallel to the direction of the motion of the wave

Baseline
The horizontal line drawn through the wave and represents the undisturbed part of the medium

Crest
The highest point on a wave

Trough
The lowest point on a wave

Wavelength
The distance between two adjacent crests or two adjacent troughs

Amplitude
The distance from the baseline to a crest or trough

Frequency
Number of waves passing a stationary point per second

Period
Time required for one vibration

Wave Speed
Distance that the wave travels divided by time to travel that distance

Constructive Interference
When the crest of one wave overlaps the crest of another, their individual effects adds together to produce a wave of increased amplitude

Destructive Interference
When the crest of one wave overlaps the trough of another, their individual effects cancel to produce a wave of decreased amplitude

Purpose of the Vibrating String experiment
To study harmonics and overtones in a vibrating string

Harmonic
A partial tone whose frequency is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency

Purpose of the Organ Pipe experiment
To study overtones and harmonics of standing waves in organ pipes

Emission Spectrum
Bright lines with dark backgrounds

Continuous Spectrum
No breakage between colors

Absorption Spectrum
Continues but there is breakage

Quantum Mechanics
Assure us that an atom absorbs the same wavelengths of light it would emit if excited

Purpose of the Spectra experiment
To observe the spectrum of light emitted from various types of light sources

Purpose of the Ray Box Part One experiment
To learn about reflection and refraction of light as well as color addition and color subtraction

Law of Reflection
States that when light is incident on a specular reflecting surface, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection

Normal
Line the is perpendicular to the surface of the mirror

Superposition Principle
In a situation where more than one wave occupies the same space at the same time, the displacements add at every point

Node
Any part of a standing wave the remains stationary; a region of minimal or zero energy

Antinode
Any part of a standing wave with maximum displacement and maximum energy

Wave Speed
Speed with which waves pass a particular point

Nanometer
Metric unit of length that is 10^9 meter

Focal Length
Distance between the center of a lens and either focal point; the distance from a mirror to it's focal point

Dependent Variable
The quantity that depends on the independent variable

Abscissa
The horizontal axis where the independent variable is always plotted

Ordinate
The vertical axis where the dependent variable is plotted

Conservation of Linear Momentum
The vector sum of the momenta of the particles before collision is equal to the vector sum of the momenta of the particles after collision

Purpose of the Simple Pendulum experiment
To use a simple pendulum to calculate the acceleration due o gravity

Purpose of the Addition of Vector experiment
To learn about the addition of vectors

Purpose of the Linear Momentum experiment
To demonstrate and verify the vector nature and conservation of linear momentum

Purpose of Centripetal Force experiment
To learn about uniform circular motion and centripetal force

Equation of a line
y=mx+b

A linear relationship will be a ____
Straight line

What happened to the period of vibration of a simple pendulum of a simple pendulum if the mass of the bob is increased?
Nothing, the mass does not effect the period of vibration

Some clocks use pendelums to keep time. If a grandfather clock were running too slow, how would you correct this?
Shorten the length of the pendulum so it will go faster

Formula for momentum
p=mv


What happens to the speed of the wave on the strong as more mass is added?
The speed increases

If one wished to double the speed of the wave on the vibrating string by increasing the tension, by how much would the tension need to be increased?
Tension needs to be quadrupled

What kind of light produces both continuous and discrete?
Fluorescent Light

What type of spectrum does incandescent light produce?
Continuous

Hyperopia
Far sighted and needs convex lenses to correct it

Myopia
Near sighted and needs concave lenses to correct it

Astronomical Telescope
Two convex lenses, produces and inverted image

Terrestrial Telescope
Two convex lenses, produces and upright image

Opera Glass
Convex and concave lenses, produces an upright, magnified, and virtual image

Formula for Slope (Rise/Run)
m=(y2y1)/(x2x1)

Superposition of Waves Lab
To obtain the resultant wave formed by the superposition of two traveling waves.

Superposition
In a situation where more than one wave occupies the same space at the same time, the displacements add at every point.

Constructive interference
Combination of waves so that two or more waves overlap to produce a resulting wave of increased amplitude

Destructive interference
Combination of waves so that crest parts of one wave overlap trough parts of another, resulting in a wave of decreased amplitude.

Transverse waves
Wave with a vibration at right angles to the direction the wave is traveling. Light consists of these waves.

Longitudinal Waves
Wave in which the induividual particles of a medium vibrate back and forth in the direction in which the wave travels. Sound consists of these waves.

Wavelength
Distance between successive crests, troughs, or identical parts of the wave

Period
The time required for one complete cycle.

Frequency
The number of vibrations per unit of time.

Wave Speed
frequency X wavelength

Crest
One of the places in a wave where the wave is highest or the disturbance is greatest in the opposite direction from the trough.

Trough
The lowest part of a wave

Amplitude
The maximum displacement on either side of the equilibrium point.

The Vibrating String Lab
To study harmonics and overtones in a vibrating string

Nodes
Any part of a standing wave that remains stationary; a region of minimal or zero energy

Antinodes
Any part of a standing wave with maximum displacement and maximum energy

The Organ Pipe Lab
To study overtones and harmonics of standing waves in organ pipes.

Types of Spectra Lab
To observe the spectrum of light emitted from the various types of light sources

Spectroscope
black box used in types of spectra lab

Diffraction Grating
A spectrum is caused by this

Discrete emission spectra
A hot gas of low density through a diffraction grating

Continuous emission spectra
light looks like rainbow; fluorescent lamp, light bulb, candle

Emission Spectrum
spectrum of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a selfluminous source

Absorption Spectrum
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light.

The Ray Box: Part 1 Lab
To learn about reflection and refraction of light as well as color addition and color subtraction

Law of Reflection
the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection

Law of Refraction
light going from fast medium to slow bends toward the normal and light going form slow medium to fast bends away form the normal

Concave Mirror
mirror that converges light

Convex Mirror
mirror that diverges light

Concave Lens
Lens that Diverges light

Convex Lens
Lens that Converges light

The Ray Box: Part Two Lab
To learn about reflection and refraction of light as well as color addition and color subtraction.



Color Addition
all of the primary additive colors of light together make white light. Blue and red make magenta, green and blue make cyan, and green and red make yellow.

Color Subtraction
when a pigment subtracts the wavelengths from white light to form a certain color; only reflects one color, absorbs (subtracts) all others

Telescopes Lab
To learn about telescopes

Focal Length
the distance from a lens to its focus

Real Images
can be projected and are seen upside down.

Virtual Images
can not be projected and only seen in mirrors or lenses; only seen right side up

Objective Lens
enlarges the image of the specimen

Eyepiece Lens
magnifies the image, usually 10 times

Astronomical Telescope
Consists of two lenses. In this case, the objective lens forms a REAL but DIMINISHED image of the distant object being viewed. The real image is the object of the second lens. The rays from this real image travel into the eyepiece lens and they form a virtual magnified image.

Terrestrial Telescope
A telescope where the final image is rightside up, which is more useful for those viewing objects on Earth.

Galilean Telescope (Opera Glass)
produces and enlarged upright image; the combination of lenses is a long focal length and positive objective lenses with a short focal length, negative eyepiece

Graphing Lab
To teach the student how to analyze data graphically.

Independent Variable
a variable whose values are independent of changes in the values of other variables. "X"

Dependent Variable
"Y", a variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value depends in the independent variable

The simple pendulum lab
To use a simple pendulum to calculate the acceleration due to gravity.

Additions of Vectors Lab
To learn about the addition of vectors

Resultant
a vector that is the sum of two or more other vectors

Equilibrant
a force that places an object in equilibrium; is the same magnitude as the resultant, but opposite in direction

Linear Momentum Lab
To demonstrate and verify the vector nature and conservation of linear momentum

Centripetal Force Lab
To learn about uniform circular motion and centripetal force

Centripetal force
Center seeking force

Rotational Motion
motion of a body that spins about an axis

Angular Velocity
The angular displacement of an object divided by the time needed to make the displacement.

Radians
the SI unit of measurement of the size of an angle. A complete circle is 2π radians.

Radians/Second
Angular frequency (w) is measured in what units?

