Radiology Final Info

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Kristenw
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301722
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Radiology Final Info
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2015-04-30 20:17:55
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Final Info
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Radiology Final Info
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  1. CR stands for
    Computerized radiography
  2. Inside a CR cassette a single intensifying screen traps image by means of what?
    Photostimulable plate
  3. Intensifying screen in a CR cassette known as..?
    Imaging plate
  4. Front of the imaging plate in a CR cassette is coated with what?
    Photostimulable phosphor (PSP)
  5. What PSP is a CR imaging plate coated with?
    Barium fluorohalide
  6. Device that was first developed for digital radiography
    Charge-coupled device (CCD)
  7. TFT stands for
    Thin-film transistor
  8. a-Se stands for
    Amorphous selenium plate
  9. Histogram means
    Graphic description of each pixel value in the image
  10. Typical digital imaging systems dynamic range?
    14-bit
  11. ALARA stands for
    As low as reasonably achievable
  12. PACS stands for
    Picture archiving and communications systems
  13. Our digital radiograph machine name
    Digital Vet Quick
  14. Name of program used on computer for digital xray here at tomabll
    QXvue
  15. Our ultrasound machine name
    MyLab40
  16. 3 parameters that can be adjusted during ultrasound
    • Frequency
    • Depth
    • Brightness
  17. How to save image on ultrasound
    Press freeze button, press image button, press freeze button again for live motion
  18. Radiopaque
    Positive contrast medium
  19. Radiolucent
    Negative contrast medium
  20. Positive contrast agents
    • Barium
    • Iodine
  21. Negative contrast agents
    Gases: O2 and CO2
  22. Positive contrast agents appear...
    White
  23. Negative contrast agents appear...
    Black
  24. 3 categories of contrast agents
    • Positive contrast iodinated
    • Positive contrast barium sulfate
    • Negative contrast gases
  25. Positive contrast iodinated agents are..
    Water soluble and oil bases and used IV for kidney studies, radiograph taken immediately due to rapid kidney perfusion. Water soluble agents preferred in GI studies.
  26. Barium sulfate available in various forms such as
    • Liquid (EZ paque)
    • Paste (EZ paste)
    • Powder
  27. Studies that use barium sulfate
    • Esophagraphy
    • Upper GI study
    • Lower GI study
  28. Negative contrast gases used in which studies
    Cystogram of urinary bladder
  29. Purpose of a technique chart
    Provide consistent method of choosing the proper exposure factors to create a diagnostic radiograph
  30. How often should a x-ray unit be calibrated?
    Once a year
  31. Best type of tape to use on bird x-ray
    Transpore
  32. Purposes for dental x-rays
    • Embedded teeth
    • Tumors
    • Malocclusion
    • Fragmented teeth
    • Impacted teeth
    • Abscess
  33. Strap on positioning aid for horses
    Ez Blox
  34. Primary fundamental units of measurement
    • Mass
    • Length
    • Time
  35. Discovered table of elements
    Dmitri Mendeleev
  36. Types of energy
    • Mechanical
    • Chemical
    • Thermal
    • Nuclear
    • Electromagnetic 
    • Electrical
  37. Symbol for frequency
    Hertz (Hz)
  38. Properties of x-rays
    • 1) Travel in straight lines
    • 2) Travel at the speed of light 3 X10^8
    • 3) Can ionize matter
    • 4) Cannot be focused by a lens
    • 5) Produce secondary and scatter radiation
  39. Inverse square law
    Intensity of the x-ray beam is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source
  40. Diagnostic imaging using mA for what?
    To regulate the number of electrons used to produce x-ray photons
  41. Power equation
    • I X V=W
    • Current in amperes X volts= power
  42. What must be installed at eye level within reach of the x-ray generator?
    Wall switch
  43. 3 types of transformers in an x-ray circuit
    • 1) Auto transformer
    • 2) High-tension transformer
    • 3) Filament transformer
  44. What does the filament transformer do?
    Produces temperature required for the filament to heat so a exposure can take place
  45. 3 essential items to every x-ray unit
    • 1) Control panel
    • 2) X-ray tube
    • 3) High-tension transformer
  46. X-ray tube consists of a glass enclosure that houses what?
    Anode and cathode
  47. How many filaments does a typically cathode have?
    2
  48. Filaments are positioned opposite the anode inside what?
    Focusing cup
  49. Small animal x-ray units contain what type of anode?
    Rotating anode
  50. Exposure switch that most small animal units have
    Two-stage exposure switch
  51. How the two-stage exposure switch works
    First initiates the rotor circuit then initiates x-ray exposure
  52. Early term for radiographer
    Skiagrapher
  53. 3 receptor components to every film-based imaging system
    • Cassette
    • Intensifying screen
    • Film
  54. Radiographic contrast factors
    • Kilovoltage 
    • mAs
    • Distance
    • Film/screen combinations
    • Processing parameters
    • Grid, filters
    • Collimation
  55. Subject contrast factors
    • Patient thickness
    • Body part being examined
    • Use of contrast media
  56. 15% rule
    • Multiply kV by 1.15 to increase penetration 
    • Multiply kV by 0.85 to decrease penetration
  57. SID for horses
    26
  58. Name of first presenter at the symposium
    Valerie Fadok
  59. Name of second presenter at symposium
    Elizabeth Martinez
  60. 2 common sizes for dental film
    Size 2 and 4
  61. Developing, fixing time, and washing time for dental radiographs
    • Developing: 12-15 seconds
    • Fixing: 30 seconds
    • Washing time: 1 min
  62. 2 types of field views with CT scanning
    • Scan field of view (SFOV)
    • Display field of view (DFOV)
  63. Procedure where spinal pathology is suspected and a contrast agent is injected
    Myelogram
  64. 3D image
    Computerized tomography (CT)
  65. Fluoroscopy provides what?
    Real-time imaging of anatomical structures
  66. MRI stands for
    Magnetic resonance imaging
  67. MRI is superior in demonstrating which parts of the body?
    • Brain
    • Spinal cord
    • Ligaments
    • Cartilage
  68. How and MRI works
    Subject placed in magnetic tube, molecules align and become polarized and magnetized. Radio frequency applied which is tuned into the frequency of hydrogen atoms. Hydrogen atoms respond by resonating into a higher energy state, and change angle of their magnetization and wobble together. Radio frequency is removed and the molecules return to their normal state, in doing so they give off a radio frequency that the MRI calculates into an image.
  69. Common radionuclides in vet medicine
    • Iodine
    • Technetium
  70. Radiation measuring device
    Dosimeter
  71. ICRP meaning
    International Commission on Radiological Protection
  72. ACVR meaning
    American College of Veterinary Radiology
  73. When viewing lateral radiographs which part of the body is on your left?
    Cranial part of the animal
  74. How to view VD or DV radiographs on a illuminator
    Cranial part of animal points up and animals left side is on your right
  75. How to view lateral radiographs of a limb
    Proximal part of the limb points up and cranial/dorsal aspect of the limb is on your left
  76. How to view DP/PD/CrCd/CdCr radiographs
    Proximal end of extremity is at the top of the illuminator
  77. 4 basic tooth types in dogs/cats
    • Incisors
    • Canine teeth
    • Premolar
    • Molar
  78. Canine dental formula
    2 X (I3C1P4M2/ I3C1P4M3)= 42 teeth
  79. Feline dental formula
    2 X (I3C1P3M1/ I3C1P2M1)= 30 teeth
  80. Recommended radiograph views for birds
    • VD whole body
    • Lateral whole body
  81. Recommended radiograph views for pocket pets
    • VD site of interest
    • Lateral site of interest 
    • Skull: DV and lateral
    • Extremities: both views
  82. Recommended radiograph views for lizards
    • DV whole body
    • Lateral whole body
  83. Recommended radiograph views for turtles
    • DV
    • Lateral
    • Rostrocaudal
  84. Recommended radiograph views for snakes
    • DV whole body
    • Lateral whole body

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