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CR stands for
Inside a CR cassette a single intensifying screen traps image by means of what?
Intensifying screen in a CR cassette known as..?
Front of the imaging plate in a CR cassette is coated with what?
Photostimulable phosphor (PSP)
What PSP is a CR imaging plate coated with?
Device that was first developed for digital radiography
Charge-coupled device (CCD)
TFT stands for
a-Se stands for
Amorphous selenium plate
Graphic description of each pixel value in the image
Typical digital imaging systems dynamic range?
ALARA stands for
As low as reasonably achievable
PACS stands for
Picture archiving and communications systems
Our digital radiograph machine name
Digital Vet Quick
Name of program used on computer for digital xray here at tomabll
Our ultrasound machine name
3 parameters that can be adjusted during ultrasound
How to save image on ultrasound
Press freeze button, press image button, press freeze button again for live motion
Positive contrast medium
Negative contrast medium
Negative contrast agents
Gases: O2 and CO2
Positive contrast agents appear...
Negative contrast agents appear...
3 categories of contrast agents
- Positive contrast iodinated
- Positive contrast barium sulfate
- Negative contrast gases
Positive contrast iodinated agents are..
Water soluble and oil bases and used IV for kidney studies, radiograph taken immediately due to rapid kidney perfusion. Water soluble agents preferred in GI studies.
Barium sulfate available in various forms such as
- Liquid (EZ paque)
- Paste (EZ paste)
Studies that use barium sulfate
- Upper GI study
- Lower GI study
Negative contrast gases used in which studies
Cystogram of urinary bladder
Purpose of a technique chart
Provide consistent method of choosing the proper exposure factors to create a diagnostic radiograph
How often should a x-ray unit be calibrated?
Once a year
Best type of tape to use on bird x-ray
Purposes for dental x-rays
- Embedded teeth
- Fragmented teeth
- Impacted teeth
Strap on positioning aid for horses
Primary fundamental units of measurement
Discovered table of elements
Types of energy
Symbol for frequency
Properties of x-rays
- 1) Travel in straight lines
- 2) Travel at the speed of light 3 X10^8
- 3) Can ionize matter
- 4) Cannot be focused by a lens
- 5) Produce secondary and scatter radiation
Inverse square law
Intensity of the x-ray beam is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source
Diagnostic imaging using mA for what?
To regulate the number of electrons used to produce x-ray photons
- I X V=W
- Current in amperes X volts= power
What must be installed at eye level within reach of the x-ray generator?
3 types of transformers in an x-ray circuit
- 1) Auto transformer
- 2) High-tension transformer
- 3) Filament transformer
What does the filament transformer do?
Produces temperature required for the filament to heat so a exposure can take place
3 essential items to every x-ray unit
- 1) Control panel
- 2) X-ray tube
- 3) High-tension transformer
X-ray tube consists of a glass enclosure that houses what?
Anode and cathode
How many filaments does a typically cathode have?
Filaments are positioned opposite the anode inside what?
Small animal x-ray units contain what type of anode?
Exposure switch that most small animal units have
Two-stage exposure switch
How the two-stage exposure switch works
First initiates the rotor circuit then initiates x-ray exposure
Early term for radiographer
3 receptor components to every film-based imaging system
- Intensifying screen
Radiographic contrast factors
- Film/screen combinations
- Processing parameters
- Grid, filters
Subject contrast factors
- Patient thickness
- Body part being examined
- Use of contrast media
- Multiply kV by 1.15 to increase penetration
- Multiply kV by 0.85 to decrease penetration
Name of first presenter at the symposium
Name of second presenter at symposium
2 common sizes for dental film
Size 2 and 4
Developing, fixing time, and washing time for dental radiographs
- Developing: 12-15 seconds
- Fixing: 30 seconds
- Washing time: 1 min
2 types of field views with CT scanning
- Scan field of view (SFOV)
- Display field of view (DFOV)
Procedure where spinal pathology is suspected and a contrast agent is injected
Computerized tomography (CT)
Fluoroscopy provides what?
Real-time imaging of anatomical structures
MRI stands for
Magnetic resonance imaging
MRI is superior in demonstrating which parts of the body?
- Spinal cord
How and MRI works
Subject placed in magnetic tube, molecules align and become polarized and magnetized. Radio frequency applied which is tuned into the frequency of hydrogen atoms. Hydrogen atoms respond by resonating into a higher energy state, and change angle of their magnetization and wobble together. Radio frequency is removed and the molecules return to their normal state, in doing so they give off a radio frequency that the MRI calculates into an image.
Common radionuclides in vet medicine
Radiation measuring device
International Commission on Radiological Protection
American College of Veterinary Radiology
When viewing lateral radiographs which part of the body is on your left?
Cranial part of the animal
How to view VD or DV radiographs on a illuminator
Cranial part of animal points up and animals left side is on your right
How to view lateral radiographs of a limb
Proximal part of the limb points up and cranial/dorsal aspect of the limb is on your left
How to view DP/PD/CrCd/CdCr radiographs
Proximal end of extremity is at the top of the illuminator
4 basic tooth types in dogs/cats
- Canine teeth
Canine dental formula
2 X (I3C1P4M2/ I3C1P4M3)= 42 teeth
Feline dental formula
2 X (I3C1P3M1/ I3C1P2M1)= 30 teeth
Recommended radiograph views for birds
- VD whole body
- Lateral whole body
Recommended radiograph views for pocket pets
- VD site of interest
- Lateral site of interest
- Skull: DV and lateral
- Extremities: both views
Recommended radiograph views for lizards
- DV whole body
- Lateral whole body
Recommended radiograph views for turtles
Recommended radiograph views for snakes
- DV whole body
- Lateral whole body