Methods Test#5

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Author:
meghiliary
ID:
301730
Filename:
Methods Test#5
Updated:
2015-04-29 00:38:16
Tags:
Radiology
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Description:
Upper GI system
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  1. What body habits would be characteristic of an individual with a massive body build?
    Hyperstenic
  2. Where is the gallbladder located on a hypersthenic individual?
    High, transverse, and right of the midline
  3. What body habits is characteristic of the average body build?
    Sthenic
  4. Radiographic procedures or examinations of the entire alimentary canal are similar in three general aspects. What are they?
    • 1. Density
    • 2. Initial stage of each radiographic exam
    • 3. Radiographic images are recorded during, and after fluoro exam
  5. Does radiopaque contrast media absorb (more or less) x-rays than radiolucent contrast media?
    More
  6. Can barium sulfate dissolve in water?
    No
  7. When would a barium sulfate mixture be contraindicated for an UGI series?
    Through a perforated viscus or during surgery following exam.
  8. What type of contrast would be indicated on a patient who recently experienced surgery on for a perforated viscus?
    Water-soluble iodinated contrast media
  9. What are the two types of contrast used for a double contrast UGI?
    • Barium sulfate 
    • Room air/ CO2 gas (crystals)
  10. What type of crystals can be used to produce gas in the stomach during an UGI?
    • Calcium citrate
    • Magnesium citrate
  11. Where is the x-ray tube located on a fluoro unit?
    under the table
  12. Where should the bucky be placed during a fluoro procedure?
    All the way at the end of the table?
  13. What does DF stand for?
    digital fluoro
  14. How much can the dose be reduced to the patient by using a DF unit?
    30-50%
  15. What are the tow common procedures of the upper gastrointestinal system?
    Esophagogram and Upper GI series
  16. Is there a patient "prep" for an esophagram?
    No
  17. Can additional items such as cotton balls soaked in thin barium, gelatin capsules filled with barium or marshmallows be used during an esophagram study?
    Yes
  18. How often does the fluoro timer usually go off during a fluoro procedure?
    every 5 minutes.
  19. Does an esophagram begin with the table in the erect position?
    Usually
  20. What is the Valsalva maneuver?
    Patient takes in a breath and contracts abdominal muscles.
  21. Is a compression paddle used during an UGI exam?
    Yes it can be.
  22. What three projections are considered routine for an esophagram or barium swallow?
    AP, RAO, Lateral
  23. Can an UGI and Esophagram be performed together ( meaning can they patient have both on the same day?)
    Yes
  24. What does NPO mean?
    • Non Per Os
    • No food or drink prior to exam
  25. What is the patient "prep" for an UGI Series?
    • NPO for 8 hrs. 
    • No smoking
    • No chewing gym
  26. Any x-ray examination of the abdomen of a potentially pregnant female should be governed by the "10 day rule". What is the 10 day rule?
    radiologic exams should be during first 10 days following onset of menstruation.
  27. What kVp is required for an UGI exam?
    100-125 kVp
  28. How much should the patient be obliqued for an RAO esophagram?
    35-40 degrees
  29. For an RAO position of the stomach should the entire stomach and C-loop of the duodenum be visualized?
    Yes
  30. Where should the central ray be directed for an RAO position of the stomach?
    L2: between spine and lateral border
  31. Which lateral (right or left) should be performed for a lateral of the stomach?
    Right
  32. Can an LPO position of the stomach be used instead of the RAO position of the stomach at some hospitals/clinics?
    Yes
  33. Where should the central ray be positioned for an AP projection of the stomach?
    Midway between xiphoid tip and lower margin of ribs
  34. What is the SID that should be used for a lateral position of the esophagus?
    40"
  35. What are the 3 main subdivisions of the stomach?
    • Fundus
    • Body
    • Pylorus
  36. What are the 3 functions of digestion?
    • 1. digestion
    • 2. Absorption
    • 3. elimination
  37. Name 3 organs that pass through the diaphragm?
    • IVC
    • Aorta
    • Esophagus
  38. What are the salivary organs?
    • paratoid
    • submandibulary
    • sublingual
  39. What and where is the ligament of Treitz?
    Whats another name for it?
    • Suspensory ligament that holds ascending portion of duodenum: gives it the "C" shape.
    • duodenojejunal flexure
  40. Ratio of Barium to water is?
    • Thin> 1:1
    • Thick> 3:1
  41. Name the 4 methods to test for reflux?
    • 1. Breathing: Valsalva or Mueller
    • 2. Water
    • 3. Compression Paddle
    • 4. Toe touch.
  42. Name the accessary organs of digestion.
    • glands
    • teeth
    • tongue
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • pancreas
  43. Can peristalsis and pain cause involuntary movement?
    Yes
  44. Define: Masitcation
    chewing
  45. deglutition
    Act of swallowing
  46. How can you tell if the patient is supine?
    barium is in the fundus of the stomach and air is more in the bottom.
  47. How can you tell if the patient is erect?
    • Barium is in the bottom of the stomach and air is in the fundus. 
    • There is also a distinct line between barium and air.
  48. How can you tell if the patient is prone?
    barium is pooled in the bottom of the stomach and air in the fundus.
  49. Define: Diveriticulum
    out-pouching of intestinal wall
  50. Whats the benefit of performing a double contrast study vs. single contrast study?
    • It produces better visualization of the mucosa of the stomach to
    • demonstrate potential polyps, diverticulae or ulcers.
  51. Define: Gastritis
    inflammation of of mucosa of the stomach.
  52. Define: Chole
    relationship to bile
  53. Define: cysto
    sac or bladder
  54. Define: cholonagiogram
    radiographic examination of biliary ducts
  55. Define: Cholecystolangiogram
    study of both the gallbladder and the biliary ducts
  56. Define: choleliths
    gallstones
  57. Define: chlelithaisis
    inflammation of the gallbladder
  58. Define: Cholecystectomy
    surgical removal of the gallbladder
  59. Describe the anatomy of the biliary system.
    • Bile is formed in the liver
    • Travels via the ducts
    • Bile is carried to the GB via the cystic duct and is temporarily stored
    • Bile then secreted into duodenum via the Common Bile Duct which is joined by the Pancreatic Duct.

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