Test 5 part 3
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describe the digestion and abospriton of fats
- bile acids and lecithin coat fats to emulifity them
- pancreatic lipase breaks them into monglycerides and free fatty acids
- bile acids gather them into micelles which are absorbed by cells of the intestinal lining
- triglycerdies re-assembled in the cell and packaged by the Golgi complex into chylomincrons
- exported from the base of the cell and picked up the lacteals
describe the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates
- salivary amylase attacks sugars in the mouth
- digestion stops in the stomach
- pancreatic amylase breaks the sugars into oligosaccharides in the duodnum
- bush border enzymes break these into monosacchardies which are absorbed into the jejunum
describe the digestion and absorption of proteins
- pepsin and acid in the stomach denature (unwind) the proteins
- trypsin and chymotryspsin break them into small peptides
- brush border enzymes break them into amino acids which are absorbed
what are the essential nutrients?
- 8 of the amino acids
- 2 or 3 fatty acids
what unit is used to measure food energy and basal metabolic rate?
what is it? (calorie)
that amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Centrigrade
what is the glucose sparing effect and why is it important?
- the ability of some cells to sue fats to produce ATP so that glucose can be saved for those cells that can't use fats
- the cells of the brain only use glucose
parts of the body-made from fats are:
- steroid hormones
- kidney support
- padding and insulation
what is the compoositons and function of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL?
- chylomicrons- triglycerides and proteins made in the intestinal lining, absorbed in lacteals and taken to the liver
- VLDL- cholesterol, triglerides and proteins made in liver for transport to adipose cells
- LDL- triglycerides are removed from VLDL by the adipose cell, the remaining protein and cholesterol circulate in the blood until they find a cell that wants the cholesterol
- HDL- protein packages made in the liver that circulate in the blood to pick up excess cholesterol and carry it back to the liver
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