1) Explain the outermost cells of the granular layer.
a. They are reduced to flattened scales, or squames, filled with densely packed keratin. The plasma membrnaes of both the squames and the outer granular cells are reinforced on their cytoplasmic surface by a thin (12 nm), tough, cross-linked layer of proteins, including a cytoplasmic protein called involucrin. The squames themselves are normally so compressed and thin