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give one important role of the following minerals:
sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron
- sodium- iron produces osmotic gradients
- potassium- maintains cell membrane potential
- calcium- makes bones
- phosphorus- makes ATP
- iron- binds oxygen in hemoglobin
what roles do vitamins play in the body?
- electron carriers
what are the differences between the two major divisions of vitamins?
- fat soluble are stored in the body and can reach toxic levels (A,D,K,D)
- water-soluble are rapidly excreted and have to be replaced frequently (C, B vitamins-riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, thiamine, cyanocobalamin)
what are the three steps in breaking down glucose to make ATP?
- Krebs cycle
- electron transport chain
what is the most ATP made?
what is the role of oxygen in ATP formation?
it serves as the final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport chain
what else is the body is oxygen used?
what happens when oxygen is not available?
- the end product of gylcolysis, pyruvate, is converted into lactic acid
- this cuts the production of ATP from 38 to 2 and produces metabolic acidosis