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Eye movement due to contraction of superior rectus muscle is directly antagonised by:
a. musculus rectus inferior bulbi
b. musculus obliquus inferior bulbi
c. musculus obliquus superior bulbi
d. musculus rectus lagteralis bulbi
e. musculus rectus medialis bulbi
Fast adaptation of tactile receptors is caused by:
a. decrease of firing rate despite the ongoing depression of the receptor
b. return of the receptor towards normal shape despite the lasting pressure
c. compensatory mechanism at a level of the basal ganglia
d. failure of the cerebellum to detect long-lasting sensory stimulationin
e. ability of the reticular formation to convert a continuous sensory stimulus.
Unilateral injection of cold water into the outer ear causes vertigo and nausea. The basic cause of this phenomenon is:
a. temporary immobilisation of otoliths
b. reduction of movement of crista ampullaris
c. decrease of firing rate in vestibular nerves
d. increase of firing rate in vestibular nuclei as a result of their cooling
e. cooling-induced flow ot the endolymph
Which one of the following physiological mechanisms happens when the auditory system detects the increase of tone pitch?
a. the average firing rate in the auditory nerve will increase.
b. the individual auditory nerve fibres respond to broader range of frequencies.
c. a greater number of hair cells is activated.
d. the largest amplitude of vibrations of the basilar membrane will shift towards the base of the cochlea.
The stimulation of the Golgi tendon organ leads to:
a. contraction of intrafusal muscle fibres
b. contraction of extrafusal muscle fibres reflex inhibition of motonenurones
c. increase of activity of gamma fibres
d. increase of activity in afferent type II fibres
Which one of the following receptor types display, under normal physiological conditions, the greatest degree of adaptation?
a. muscle spindlenociceptors
b. tactile receptors
c. visceral chemoreceptors
d. tension receptors in the lungs
a. has a relatively fast adaptation
b. is conducted by B fibres of the dorsal roots of spinal nerves
c. is a subjective feeling, unpleasant sensory and emotional experience, related to either actual or potential damage.
d. resembles fast pain evoked by painful stimulation of the skin
e. can be evoked by a strong and prolonged stimulation of tactile receptors.
The following events, that appear in response to the light, are listed here in random order.
1. Activation of transducin
2. Decreased release of synaptic mediator
3. Structural change of rhodopsin
4. Closing of Na+ channels
5. Lowering of intracellular contens of cGMP
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