Ch 23 Connective Tissue

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  1. Fibroblasts can be converted into several types.
    • adipocytes
    • chondrocytes
    • osteocytes
    • myoblasts
  2. Elaborate on cell secretion and formation.
    cells secrete ECM to make themselves feel happy; information is passed to adjacent cells and knows it has friends around
  3. Chondrocytes secretion
    chondrocytes secrete matrix that has a lot of collagen type II

    ECM population and connections with adjacent cells= comfortable chondrocytes
  4. How can we abuse cells? 

    What happens when we do this?
    • 1) not change media
    • 2) not give nutrients
    • 3) change pH
    • 4) make them very scarce on the plate

    they begin secreting collagen type I (an earlier cell type)
  5. Fat cells
    • giant droplet of fat surrounded by a thin membrane
    • Prior to pre-adipocyte, they were mesenchymal cells

    stem cell--> fibroblasts (which can become other things)--> pre-ad--> adipocytes
  6. What are the steps of adipogenesis
    Begin with mesenchymal cell--proliferation and determination--> preadipocyte--prolif and differen--> immature multiocular adipocytes--hypertrophy--> adipocyte
  7. One protein that is completely expressed in pre-adipocytes, but off completely in adipocytes?
    Pref-1 (p21 is a factor as well)
  8. Explain Pref-1.
    belongs to the Notch/Delta/Serrate family of epidermal growth factor-like repeat-containing proteins

    Delta is a transmembrane protein that contains internal and external domains with EGF-like repeats

    it is the ligand that pairs with Notch; when in contact, they signal reactions in all
  9. What happens when Notch is in contact with Delta?
    • cleavage events that turn Notch into a transcription factor protein
    • Different inc ell that expresses Delta due to difference in expression
  10. What can alternative splicing do for EGL-life repeats?
    lead to different types; domain has a protease cleavage site
  11. explain proteolytic cleavage of Notch.
    the first proteolytic processing step occurs within the trans Golgi network to generate the mature heterodimeric Notch receptor that is then displayed on the cell surface

    The binding of Delta triggers the next two proteolytic steps: complex of Delta and the Notch subunit to which it is bound is endocytosed by the Delta-expressing cell, exposing the extracllular cleavage site in the transmembrane Notch subunit
  12. Explain pref-1 in terms of preadipocyte and adipocyte growth.
    Pref-1 highly expressed in preadipocytes--? proliferation

    Differentiation leads to an inability to proliferate and no Pref-1 expression
  13. True or False: 

    Adipocytes can go back to fibroblasts.

    not enough info or experiments to prove this
  14. OB mouse
    mutation in leptin causes obesity

    Leptin tells you that you are full and to stop eating

    Experiment: reincorporated leptin into an adenovirus and infected it with virus/ leptin circulates
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Ch 23 Connective Tissue
2015-04-29 21:21:45
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