Medical Immunology (Exam IV Material) Lecture 15
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What is the goal of transplantation?
- Replace diseased/damaged/worn-out
What are the barriers to overcome for transplantation?
1. Must perform normal function
2. Donor’s and recipient’s health must be maintained during surgeries and procedures
- 3. Recipient’s immune system must NOT reject
- transplant as foreign
Define transplant rejection.
The recipient’s immune system attacks transplanted tissue
Define Graft vs Host disease.
- The transplanted tissue (i.e. immune cells from bone marrow transplant or stem cell transplant)
- attacks recipient
What is the major difference between transplant rejection and Graft-vs-host disease?
In transplant rejection, the hosts immune system attacks the foreign tissue
In Graft-vs-host disease, the transplanted tissue (bone marrow or stem cell) attacks the host.
What is the most important antigenic difference in the recipient and donor for both, "transplant rejection" and "Graft-vs-Host disease"?
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
What is the most important genetic component of autoimmune diseases?
What is this component also known as, or the SAME thing as?
1. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)
2. HLA is the same thing as MHC (major histocompatibility complex)
A transplant of tissue from one part of a person to a different part of that same person (e.g. skin grafts for burns)
A transplant between genetically identical individuals (e.g. kidney transplant from one twin to another)
A transplant between genetically different individuals (e.g. kidney transplant from daughter to mother)
What is the most widespread kind of translation?
What do red blood cells lack that simplifies transplantation immensely?
MHC I and MHC II
What two factors cause Type II hypersensitivity reactions, making blood transfusions a concern for patients?
1. ABO blood types (carbohydrate antigens on RBCs)
2. Rhesus (Rh) antigens (transmembrane proteins)
What is the most important Rhesus antigen?
D (Rhesus D or RhD factor)
Why is O-negative blood considered as universal donor tissue?
Typically, type O-negative blood does not present with ABO antigens on its surface; therefore it will not elicit a response from the recipients immune system.
The fact that it is negative, means that it does not present RhD antigen on its surface, and should not elicit a response from the host if they happen to be negative for the RhD antigen.
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