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What is an organelle?
A specialised part of a cell that does a certain function within the cell.
- ONLY FOUND IN PLANTS
- Touch rigid structure enclosing the plant cell. Made of a substance called cellulose which is indigestible by animals.
- Cell wall helps plant stand upright. Has holes in it so that substances can diffuse in and out of the cell.
- Cel wal makes manh plant cells appear like brickes when viewed under microscope.
- Cell membrane lies inside
- Bacter and fungi also have cell walls.
- Protects the plant cells, rigid frame work allows to grow upright substitute skeletal system.
- Chloroplasts are disc chaped and contain green substance called chlorophyll which absorbs light needed for photosynthesis.
- Produce food for plant cells through photosynthesis.
- Forms ATP - energy rich storage compound
- Jellylike substance that fills all the area inside the cell except the nucleus.
- Full of proteins that control cell metabolism, allows organelles to do what they do. moves around with the organelles.
- Used in prokaryotic cells to live.
- In this fluid energy is transferred, substances are made and nutrients such as starch grains are stored.
- Where proteins are made from amino acids. Composed of RNA and proteins
- Site of protein synthesis to give genetic code.
- Site for genetic construction.
What things are digested? what are the macromolecules,enzymes and monomers?
- PROTEINS: enzyme: protease, monomers: amino acids
- CARBOHYdRAteS: enzyme: amylase, monomers: glucose
- FATS: enzymes: lipase, monomers: fatty acids
- Mitochondrion make energy for the cell through respiration.
- Ultimately generates fuel for the cell's activities,
- takes in nutrients from the cell after digestion to generate energy.
- muscles have lots of mitochondrion
- Vacuoles are fluid filled bags within a cell wehre excess water, wastes and soluble materials are stored. At the centre of a plant cell is a large permanent vacuole. When full the vacuole pushes against the contents of the cell and provides the platn with support so it can stand upright.
- Saclike organelles.
- Plant cells have a larger vacuole to provide plant with support and to store all the soluble materials from photosynthesis and lots of water.
- In some animals (some animals dont ahve vacuoles at all) the vavuoles are many but small in cytoplasm because they ahve to contain many different types soluble materials such as metabolic waste, food, nutrients. Animals dont need as much water.
- Brain or control centre of cell. Controls the chemical reactions taht take place iwthin the cell. It is also needed for the cell to reproduce.
- In a eukaryotic cell, wihtout a nucleus, the cell dies.
- Needed in mitosis because contains genetic information in the form of chromosomes DNA.
- DNA - genetic material of organism allows for TRANSCRIPTION
- metabolism allows cell to use nutrients
- is a collection of membranes that run throughout the cell. Believed that materials are moved around a cell via these membranes. Smooth EP has no ribosomes attached to it. Rouch EP have ribosomes scattered across its surface.
- is an extensive membrane network in cytoplasm
- involved with cellular transport
- Transports nurtrietns and genetic materials
Outer boundry that keeps cell seperate from its environment. Acts like a gatekeepr letting things into and out of the cell (via diffusion high concerntration to low concerntration). A cell membrane is semi permeable which means somethigns can pass through it but others cannot.
small temporary vacuole. Vesicles are more often found in animal cells.
- the double mmebrane of the nucleus in a cell that encloses DNA and other genetic material.
- only in eukaryotic cells.
- disintegrates in PROPHASE OF MITOSIS
- Membranous sacs of digestive enzymes found both in animal and plant cells.
- They digest proteins with protease enzymes to amino acids, carbs with amylase to glucose and fats with lipase into fatty acids
- Responsible for cells digestion of macromolecules
- A pancake stack looking organelle which consists of stacked membrane-bounded flattened sacs. surrounding it are many vesicles (membranous bounded spheres that cary macromolecules). its funciton is to sort, modify and pack macromolecules that are secreted by the cell or used within teh cells for various fuctions.
- Creates lysosomes - transport of nutrients from lysosomes
- linked with lysosomes.
- process and packet nutrients > inorganic(eg gases) an organic molecules before distrubuting them around the cell
makes the organells that produce proteins ( ribosomes)
tail eg in sperm cells
- Simple animal cells
- Fingerlike projections that help to protec the cell and allow teh cell to be sensitive to environment
- types of cells with cillia include cells int eh nose (to filter air) and immusne system, intestines (velli) to absorb nutrients and increase surface area for diffusion.
- structure that contains genetic information (usually visible only in mitosis_
- are int eh nucleus
- humans ahve 23 pairs
- chromotid - singular
- centromere is the joining part of the chromatid and it's sister chromatid
Produce the spindle fibes that are used in mitosis
stringy sticky fibres used in mitosis