Medical Immunology (Exam IV Material) Lecture 16

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mbailey585
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Medical Immunology (Exam IV Material) Lecture 16
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2015-04-29 20:06:38
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Immunology Disruption Healthy Tissue Adaptive Immune Response
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PHS 109: Medical Immunology Disruption of Healthy Tissue by the Adaptive Immune Response Parham Ch. 16
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  1. Define an autoimmune response.
    • Disease caused by adaptive
    • immunity that becomes misdirected at healthy cells and tissues of the body
  2. How do autoimmune diseases arise?
    From a failure to develop/maintain self-tolerance
  3. Define autoantigen.
    Self antigen
  4. Define Autoantibody
    An antibody specific for self antigen
  5. Autoimmune T cell
    A T cell specific for self antigen
  6. List the mechanisms of self tolerance that can fail.
    1. Negative selection in bone marrow and thymus

    2. Expression of tissue-specific proteins in thymus

    3. No lymphocyte access to some tissues

    4. Suppression of autoimmune responses by regulatory T cells

    5. Induction of anergy in autoreactive B and T cells
  7. Which is NOT a mechanism of self tolerance?

    1. Positive selection in bone marrow and thymus

    2. Expression of tissue-specific proteins in thymus

    3. No lymphocyte access to some tissues

    4. Suppression of autoimmune responses by regulatory T cells

    5. Induction
    of anergy in autoreactive B and T cells
    1. Positive selection in bone marrow and thymus

    (Negative selection in bone marrow and thymus are mechanisms of self-tolerance)
  8. in which group (men or women), are autoimmune diseases more prevalent?
    Women
  9. True or False, autoimmune diseases often resolve but are rarely cured.
    False. Autoimmune diseases are RARELY resolved or cured.
  10. What do autoimmune diseases have in common with hypersensitivity reactions?
    1. From altered/new epitopes, tolerance is lost leading to a B cell response with Ab’s that are self-reactive to altered/new self epitopes (called Type II; similar to Type II hypersensitivity reaction)

    • 2. Due to soluble immune complexes formed by Ag + Ag-specific IgG (called Type III;
    • similar to Type III hypersensitivity reaction)

    3. Caused by Ag-specific T cells (called Type IV; similar to Type IV hypersensitivity reaction)
  11. Type II autoimmune reactions involve antibody responses to...
    • 1. The self cell-surface or Self matrix antigens
    • 2. Rh blood group antigens
    • 3. Platelet integrin gbII:IIa
    • 4. non-collagenous domain of basement membrane collagen type IV
    • 5. epidermal cadherin
    • 6. Strep infection cross reacting with cardiac muscle
    • 7. TSH receptor (thyroid stimulating hormone)
    • 8. AChR's (acetylcholine receptors)
    • 9. insulin receptor (blocking) antagonism
    • 10. insulin receptor (activation) agonism
  12. What category of autoimmune response leads to autoimmune hemolytic anemia?
    1. Type II

    2. Rh blood group antigens may induce immune response that lead to the destruction of RBC's by classical pathway and phagocytosis.
  13. What category of autoimmune response leads to autoimmune thrombocytopenia purpura?
    1. Type II

    2. Platelet integrin gpIIb:IIIa is the target that may induce an immune response, leading to the loss of platelet function.
  14. What category of autoimmune response leads to Goodpasture's Syndrome?
    1. Type II

    2. The non-collagenous domain of the basement membrane collagen type IV is the target where an immune response is induced, leading to glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage.
  15. What category of autoimmune response leads to pemphigus vulgaris?
    1. Type II

    2. Epidermal cadherin is the target where an induce an immune response leads to the blistering of the skin.
  16. What category of autoimmune response leads to acute rheumatic fever?
    1. Type II

    2. Streptococcal infection that cross reacts with cardiac muscle and joints may induce an immune response, leading to myocarditis, heart valve scarring and arthritis.
  17. What category of autoimmune response leads to Grave's Disease?
    1. Type II

    2. TSH receptor is the target where an immune response is induced, leading to the blistering of the skin.

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