ABSITE chapter 8 anesthesia.txt

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alshada
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3018
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ABSITE chapter 8 anesthesia.txt
Updated:
2010-01-11 11:09:08
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anesthesia ABSITE
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ABSITE ch 98 anesthesia
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  1. Smallest concentration of inhalational agent at which 50% of patients will not move with incision
    MAC (minimum alveolar concentration)
  2. Side effects of inhalational agents (3)
    Myocardial depression, inc cerebral blood flow, dec renal blood flow
  3. Inhalational agent that is fast-acting, with minimal myocardial depression
    Nitrous oxide
  4. Inhalational agent that is slow-acting, with the highest degree of cardiac depression and arrhythmias
    Halothane
  5. Inhalational agent that can cause seizures
    Enflurane
  6. Inhalational agent that is good for neurosurgery (less inc in cerebral blood flow?)
    Isoflurane
  7. Inhalational agent that has less myocardial depression, fast-acting, with less laryngospasm
    Sevoflurane
  8. Induction agent that is fast-acting, with dec cerebral blood flow and dec BP
    Sodium thiopental
  9. Induction agent with very rapid distribution and on/off; causes amnesia, hypotension
    Propofol
  10. Induction agent causing dissociation of thalamic and limbic system; causes cataleptic state
    Ketamine
  11. Induction agent with few hemodynamic changes; fast-acting. Good in trauma
    Etomidate
  12. Reasons for Rapid Sequence Intubation (5)
    Recent PO intake, GERD, delayed gastric emptying, pregnancy, bowel obstruction
  13. Last muscle to go down and first to recover after paralytics
    Diaphragm
  14. First muscle to go down and last to recover after paralytics
    Neck muscles and face
  15. Depolarizing agent causing fasciculations, inc ICP
    Succinylcholine
  16. Treatment for malignant hyperthermia
    Dantrolene
  17. First symptoms of malignant hyperthermia
    Increased end-tidal CO2
  18. Do not use succinylcholine in: (6)
    Burn patients, neurologic injury, massive trauma, neuromuscular disorders, spinal core injury, acute renal failure
  19. Paralytics that inhibit neuromuscular junction by competing with acetylcholine
    Nondepolarizing agents
  20. Nondepolarizing agent that undergoes Hoffman degradation and can be used in renal and liver failure
    Cisatracurium
  21. Nondepolarizing agent that is fast, short-acting, and degraded by plasma cholinesterases
    Mivacurium
  22. Nondepolarizing paralytic that is fast-onset, intermediate duration, and metabolized hepatically
    Rocuronium
  23. Nondepolarizing paralytic that is slow acting, long lasting, and metabolized renally
    Pancuronium
  24. Reversal agent that blocks acetylcholinesterase (2)
    Neostigmine, edrophonium
  25. Agent to give with reversal agent to counteract effects of generalized acetylcholine overdose
    Atropine or glycopyrrolate
  26. Amount of lidocaine that can be used subQ
    0.5 cc/kg of 1% lidocaine
  27. reason infected tissues are hard to anesthetize
    acidosis
  28. put in order from longest to shortest acting: lidocaine, bupivicaine, procaine
    bupivicaine> lidocaine> procaine
  29. side effects of local anesthetic
    tremor, seizure, tinnitus, arrhythmias (CNS sx first, then cardiac)
  30. amide or ester: lidocaine
    amide
  31. amide or ester: bupivicaine
    amide
  32. amide or ester: mepivicaine
    amide
  33. amide or ester: tetracaine
    ester
  34. amide or ester: procaine
    ester
  35. amide or ester: cocaine
    ester
  36. agents that act on mu receptors, cause profound analgesia and respiratory depression
    narcotics
  37. side offect of narcotic use in patients on MAOIs
    hyperpyrexic coma
  38. narcotic that decreases cough, causes constipation and histamine release
    morphine
  39. narcotic that can cause tremors, fasciculations, and convulsions
    Demerol
  40. Narcotic that simulates morphine but with less euphoria
    Methadone
  41. Narcotic with 80X strength of morphine, no histamine release
    Fentanyl
  42. Fast-acting narcotics with short half-lives (3)
    Sufentanil, alfentanil, remifentanil

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