Health Key Words

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  1. Age specific death rate
    The total number of deaths per 1000 people of a given age per year.
  2. AIDS
    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Better referred to as the conditions brought about by the deterioration in the body’s immune system caused by HIV – known as AIDS-Related Conditions (ARC)
  3. Antiretroviral (ARV drugs)
    Drugs designed to protect the immune system from the damaging effects of the HIV virus
  4. Attack Rate
    The number of cases of a disease diagnosed in an area, divided by the total population, over the period of an epidemic.
  5. Balanced diet
    The overall dietary pattern of foods consumed that provide all the essential nutrients in the appropriate amounts, to support life processes such as growth in children, without promoting excess weight.
  6. Behavioural Disease
    A disease created or spread by human behaviour, e.g. conditions caused by smoking.
  7. Body Mass Index (BMI)
    A simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity on adults and individuals. It is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres
  8. Cancer
    The name given to a range of illnesses that result from one of the cells in the body growing out of control.
  9. Case mortality rate
    The number dying from a disease divided by the number of those diagnosed with the disease.
  10. Chronic disease
    A disease that is long-lasting or recurrent and normally incurable. Examples include: cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes.
  11. Contagious disease
    A communicable disease spread by close contact.
  12. Crude birth rate
    The number of live births per 1000 of the population per year.
  13. Crude death rate
    The number deaths per 1000 of the population per year.
  14. Crude rates
    Measures the basic statistics of any population, such as birth or death rates per 1000 people.
  15. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs)
    An indication of the number of healthy years of life lost. It indicates the total burden of a disease, as opposed to the number of deaths.
  16. Determinant
    Any factor, whether event, characteristic or other definable entity, that beings about a change in a health condition or other defined characteristic.
  17. Disease
    A bodily disorder preventing good health.
  18. Development of disease
    The way in which a disease actually develops, e.g. the development of the malarial parasite in a mosquito or human host.
  19. Endemic
    An infectious disease that is always present in an area.
  20. Epidemic
    When a disease spreads quickly to affect large numbers of people in one area.
  21. Epidemiology
    The study of the spread of disease in medicine.
  22. Famine
    A time when there is so little food available that many people starve. It is to do with access to food, rather than availability.
  23. Globalisation
    The close economic interdependence between the leading nations of the world in trade, investment and cooperative commercial relationships.
  24. Health
    A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO 1946) – the overall condition of an individual at a given time.
  25. Health care
    The prevention, treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental health through the services offered by medical, nursing and allied health professionals.
  26. Health care system
    A system created by governments to provide health care across the population.
  27. Health insurance
    An amount paid to pay for health treatment. This is usually probate, unlike public contributions which are funded through taxation.
  28. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
    A virus that attacks the immune system of people who are infected. Infection is caused when bodily fluids from an infected person are passed into the body of another. This virus can cause AIDS.
  29. Incidence Rate
    How many people develop a condition within a period of time e.g. one year.
  30. Infant mortality rate
    The number of deaths of children under the age of 1 year expressed per 1000 live births per year.
  31. Infectious
    Caused by germs, likely to be transmitted through the environment
  32. Malnutrition
    The lack of proper nutrition resulting from a poorly balanced diet.
  33. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
    8 goals agreed by the UN in September 2000 for all people to work towards achieving by 2015. The MDGs recognised the most important needs for developing countries.
  34. Morbidity
    The state of being ill or diseased, or the occurrence of a disease or condition that damages health and quality of life.
  35. Mortality
    The death of people. It is measured by a number of indices including death rate, infant mortality, case mortality and attack rate.
  36. Mortality gap
    The gap in death rates between wealthier and poorer income groups or social classes.
  37. Mortality rate
    The number of deaths (in general, or from a specific cause) in a population.
  38. Non-communicable disease
    A disease that cannot be passed from one person to another. Examples of non-communicable diseases include: cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes.
  39. Notifiable disease
    Any disease that is required by law to be reported to the government. E.g. Ebola
  40. Obesity
    Abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. It is a condition caused by over-consumption of calories. WHO defines obesity as a BMI equal to or more than 30
  41. Opportunistic Infections
    Illnesses that strike people whose immune systems have been damaged by HIV.
  42. Outbreak
    An epidemic limited to localised increase in the incidence of disease, such as in a town or institution.
  43. Overweight
    Abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. It is a condition caused by over-consumption of calories. WHO defines overweight as a BMI of more than 25.
  44. Palliative
    A drug or other treatment designed to reduce symptoms and/or ease pain without dealing with the condition that cause the problem.
  45. Pandemic
    An epidemic that spreads over a very large area such as a continent or the world.
  46. Patented drugs
    Medicines that have been developed by a company that has claimed rights to their production. No other company can produce them without permission and a licence bought from the patent holder. This means that the company can charge high enough process to earn back the costs of developing the drug.
  47. Periodic famine
    Short term lack of food as a result of crop failure. Opposite of chronic (long-term) famine.
  48. Pharmaceutical
    Linked to drugs and their development.
  49. Prevalence rate
    An indication of the number of people in a population suffering from a condition at any one time.
  50. Primary Care Trusts
    UK Administrative areas which provide hospital and doctors’ surgeries. Planned to be abolished by 2013 when GPs will be out in control of much of the NHS budget and they will take over planning and buying local services from PCTs.
  51. Public Health
    The aspect of medical activity directed towards improving the health of the whole community. It addresses the health of the population as a whole rather than medical care, which focuses on treatment of the individual ailment.
  52. Tobacco
    An agricultural product, recognised as an addicted drug which is processed from the fresh leaves of a plant, native to tropical America.
  53. Transnational corporation (TNC)
    A company that operates in at least two countries. It is common for TNCs to have a hierarchical structure, with the headquarters and R&D department in the country of origin, and manufacturing plants overseas.
  54. Undernourishment
    The condition that results from consuming too little food over a period of time.
  55. Under-nutrition
    Lacking adequate minerals and vitamins.
  56. Vaccine
    An injection designed to prevent an infection.
  57. WHO
    World Health Organisation – a specialised agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health.
Card Set:
Health Key Words
2015-04-30 16:12:03
health keywords
Glossary of all the key terms for health
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