Biological aspects of radiation

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Author:
McCrae
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301879
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Biological aspects of radiation
Updated:
2015-05-01 01:37:07
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rad
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Radiation Protection
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  1. Possible responses to irradiation in utero include

    1. spontaneous abortion

    2. congenital anomalies

    3. childhood malignancies




     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3 only
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    • 1, 2, and 3 only
  2. The late effects of radiation are considered to

    1. have no threshold dose.

    2. be directly related to dose.

    3. occur within hours of exposure.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
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    • 1 and 2 only

    1. The quantity of radiation is directly related to the dose received.

    2. No threshold is required for effects to occur.

    3. A minimum amount of radiation is required for manifestation of effects.










     
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  3. Which acute radiation syndrome requires the largest exposure before any effects become apparent?




     
    Hematopoietic 



     
    Gastrointestinal 



     
    Central nervous system (CNS) 



     
    Skeletal
    •  
    •  
    • Central nervous system (CNS)
  4. If 600 rad or more is received as a whole-body dose in a short period of time, certain symptoms will occur; these are referred to as




     
    short-term effects. 



     
    long-term effects. 



     
    lethal dose. 



     
    acute radiation syndrome.
    •  
    •  
    • acute radiation syndrome.
  5. Which of the following types of radiation is (are) considered electromagnetic?

    1. X-ray

    2. Gamma

    3. Beta






     
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  6. Major effect(s) of irradiation of macromolecules include(s)

    1. point lesions

    2. cross-linking

    3. main-chain scission






     
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    1, 2, and 3
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  7. All the following radiation-exposure responses exhibit a nonlinear threshold dose–response relationship except




     
    skin erythema 



     
    hematologic depression 



     
    radiation lethality 



     
    leukemia
    •  
    •  
    • leukemia
  8. The genetic effects of radiation and some somatic effects, like leukemia, are plotted on a ____ dose-response curve. 
    linear
  9. The genetic effects of radiation and some somatic effects, like leukemia, are plotted on a ___ dose-response curve. 
    linear
  10. The x-ray interaction with matter that is responsible for the majority of scattered radiation reaching the image receptor (IR) is




     
    the photoelectric effect 



     
    Compton scatter 



     
    classical scatter 



     
    Thompson scatter
    •  
    • Compton scatter
  11. Factors that contribute to the amount of scattered radiation produced include

    1. radiation quality

    2. field size

    3. grid ratio






     
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    1, 2, and 3
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  12. Which of the following radiation-induced conditions is most likely to have the longest latent period?




     
    Leukemia 



     
    Temporary infertility 



     
    Erythema 



     
    Acute radiation lethality
    •  
    •  
    • Leukemia
  13. Which type of dose–response relationship represents radiation-induced leukemia and genetic effects?




     
    Linear, threshold 



     
    Nonlinear, threshold 



     
    Linear, nonthreshold 



     
    Nonlinear, nonthreshold
    •  
    •  
    • Linear, nonthreshold
  14. How do fractionation and protraction affect radiation dose effects?

    1. They reduce the effect of radiation exposure.

    2. They permit cellular repair.

    3. They allow tissue recovery.






     
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  15. Which of the following dose-response curve characteristics represent genetic and some somatic responses to radiation?















    1. Linear
    2. Nonthreshold
    3. Sigmoidal






     
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  16. What is the relationship between LET and RBE?




     
    As LET increases, RBE increases. 



     
    As LET increases, RBE decreases. 



     
    As LET decreases, RBE increases. 



     
    There is no direct relationship between LET and RBE.
    •  
    • As LET increases, RBE increases.
  17. Which of the following factors can affect the amount or the nature of radiation damage to biologic tissue?

    1. Radiation quality

    2. Absorbed dose

    3. Size of irradiated area






     
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  18. Late radiation-induced somatic effects include

    1. thyroid cancers

    2. cataractogenesis

    3. skin cancers






     
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    1, 2, and 3
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  19. Which of the following cell types has the greatest radiosensitivity?




     
    Nerve cells 



     
    Muscle cells 



     
    Spermatids 



     
    Lymphocytes
    •  
    •  
    • Lymphocytes
  20. What is used to account for the differences in tissue sensitivity to ionizing radiation when determining effective dose E?

    1. Tissue weighting factors (W )

    2. Radiation weighting factors (W )

    3. Absorbed dose






     
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  21. Examples of stochastic effects of radiation exposure include

    1. radiation-induced malignancy

    2. genetic effects

    3. leukemia






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
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    • 1, 2, and 3
  22. Late effects of radiation, whose incidence is dose related and for which there is no threshold dose, are referred to as




     
    nonstochastic 



     
    stochastic 



     
    chromosomal aberration 



     
    hematologic depression
    •  
    •  
    • stochastic
  23. The interaction between x-ray photons and matter pictured in Figure A is associated with

    Figure A.















    1. high-energy x-ray photons.
    2. ionization.
    3. characteristic radiation.






     
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  24. .3

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