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Describe penicillin, the class, where is it metabolized? How should it be given? Whats the indication? Action? Side effects? Drug-drug interaction?
- Ampicillin, piperacillin, oxacillin
- Class: antiinfective
- Metabolized: in the duodenum and jejunum
- Give: PO, deep IM, IV; PO on an empty stomach (1 hr before, 2hrs after) so the gut has a chance to absorb
- Indications: soft tissue infections
- Action: destroys cell wall, a broad spectrum of bacteria
- SE: Gut, NVD, Lethargy, anxiety, depression, seizures
- Drug-drug: don't give with aminoglycosides
Describe aminoglycosides which was the first developed? how is it excreted? action? Side effects?
- Streptomycin was first; gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, tebramycin
- Excreted: by kidneys
- Action: disrupts protein synthesis
- Side effects: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, anaphylaxis
Describe cephalosporins action, side efects, where is it excreted? when should you administer?
- First gen: cefazolin, cefalexin
- Second gen: cefoxitin
- third gen: cefotaxine
- fourth gen: cefepime
- similar reaction to penicillin; not absorbed in the GI tract; culture before wound prior
- Action: inhibits protein and cell wall synthesis
- Side effects: diarrhea, rash
- Monitor: for superinfection
- excreted: by kidneys or in bile
- Administer: 1 hour before other antibiotics
describe tetracyclines. where is it absorbed? excreted? action? indication? how should you give it? side effects?
- broad spectrum antibiotic; sumycin, minocin;
- absorbed: by the duodenum
- excreted: by the kidneys
- Action: inhibits protein synthesis in the cell
- indication: tx for acne and gonorrhea
- Given: i hr before or 2 hrs after meals; milk decreases absorption; dont give within 1 hr of bedtime
- Side effects: N/V, heartburn, steatorrhea, anaphylaxis, superinfection, abdominal distress, hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity, discoloration of the tooth enamel,
describe fluoroquinolones indication, excreted? action? side effects?
- ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin
- excreted: in urine, give with 8 oz water
- action: interrupt DNA syntesis
- side effects:
describe sulfonamides, side effects? action?
- side effects: N/V/D, dizziness, abdominal pain, tinnitus
- sulfadiazines, sulfasalazine, sulfisoxazole