Lecture 7: Prokaryotic Cells (Quiz 4)

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tgherasim
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Lecture 7: Prokaryotic Cells (Quiz 4)
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2015-05-01 13:57:37
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Micro
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microbiology
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Prokaryotic Cells
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  1. Cell Wall
    • Made up of repeating NAG and NAM.
    • Gram +: Cell membrane and then a thick layer of Peptidoglycan made up of Teichoic Acid (locks in purple stain).
    • Gram -: Cell membrane, thin layer of Peptidoglycan, and then an outer membrane. Secretes endotoxin which are part of the lipopolysacharides.
  2. Plasma Membrane
    • Two Layers.
    • Fluid.
    • Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic areas.
    • NO sterols in Prokaryotes, only in Eukaryotes.
    • MAIN FUNCTION: Regulate movement in and out of the cell.
  3. Cytoplasm
    • Inside of the Cell.
    • 80% water.
    • Holds everything in the cell in place.
  4. Ribosomes
    • Makes Proteins.
    • Reads mRNA.
    • About 20,000 ribosomes per cell.
    • Prokaryotic ribosomes are considered 70s (subunits/svedberg unit/sedimintation), whereas Eukaryotes have 80s.
    • Math does not make sense!
  5. Nuclear Region
    • Also known as the Nucleoid
    • There is NO nucleus in prokaryotes.
  6. Inclusion Bodies
    • These are Reserve Deposits (sacs of nutrients for the cells).
    • Chromatophores: Light harvesting complex.
    • Granules: Densely packed food reserves with specific substances (sulfur, polysaccharides).
    • Gas Vacuoles: Flotation (can adjust air).
  7. Magnetotactic Bacteria (Magnetosomes)
    • Find bacteria and create magnets inside of the cells.
    • Draw them down to the center of the earth to avoid oxygen (anaerobic).
    • Produce methane gas as a byproduct.
  8. Endospores
    • Specialized "Resting" Cell
    • Vegetative: Alive.
    • Stasis: Hybernation.
    • They can last up to 40 million years.
    • Sporulation/Sporogenesis: The process of creating a spore.
    • Dipicolinic Acid: In the cell wall, helps it survive.
    • Endospores are usually produced within a bacterium, unlike Exospores which are produced by growth or budding.
  9. Motility (Flagella)
    • Monotrichous: 1 flagella, Polar.
    • Amphitrichous: Flagella at both ends, Polar.
    • Lophotricous: Few flagella at one end, Polar.
    • Peritrichous: Flagella all over, Nonpolar.
    • Atrichous: No flagella, cocci.
    • Made up of filament (flagellin), Hook, Basal Body.
    • Chemotaxis: How bacteria move (+=move towards something they want, -= moving away)
    • Running means the bacteria is moving, tumbling refers to stopping.
  10. Axial Filament
    • Spirochetes: spiral cells that move by means of the Axial Filament.
    • It wraps around a cell.
    • Movements causes the outer sheath to move, which makes it easier to move through tissue.
  11. External Prokaryotic Structures (Attachments)
    • Fimbrae: Helps the cell adhere (stick) to things, man (can range from 2-100), biofilms.
    • Pili: Longer, twitching motility, gliding, conjugate (connected between 2 cells and assist in horizontal gene transfer).

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