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- Made up of repeating NAG and NAM.
- Gram +: Cell membrane and then a thick layer of Peptidoglycan made up of Teichoic Acid (locks in purple stain).
- Gram -: Cell membrane, thin layer of Peptidoglycan, and then an outer membrane. Secretes endotoxin which are part of the lipopolysacharides.
- Two Layers.
- Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic areas.
- NO sterols in Prokaryotes, only in Eukaryotes.
- MAIN FUNCTION: Regulate movement in and out of the cell.
- Inside of the Cell.
- 80% water.
- Holds everything in the cell in place.
- Makes Proteins.
- Reads mRNA.
- About 20,000 ribosomes per cell.
- Prokaryotic ribosomes are considered 70s (subunits/svedberg unit/sedimintation), whereas Eukaryotes have 80s.
- Math does not make sense!
- Also known as the Nucleoid.
- There is NO nucleus in prokaryotes.
- These are Reserve Deposits (sacs of nutrients for the cells).
- Chromatophores: Light harvesting complex.
- Granules: Densely packed food reserves with specific substances (sulfur, polysaccharides).
- Gas Vacuoles: Flotation (can adjust air).
Magnetotactic Bacteria (Magnetosomes)
- Find bacteria and create magnets inside of the cells.
- Draw them down to the center of the earth to avoid oxygen (anaerobic).
- Produce methane gas as a byproduct.
- Specialized "Resting" Cell
- Vegetative: Alive.
- Stasis: Hybernation.
- They can last up to 40 million years.
- Sporulation/Sporogenesis: The process of creating a spore.
- Dipicolinic Acid: In the cell wall, helps it survive.
- Endospores are usually produced within a bacterium, unlike Exospores which are produced by growth or budding.
- Monotrichous: 1 flagella, Polar.
- Amphitrichous: Flagella at both ends, Polar.
- Lophotricous: Few flagella at one end, Polar.
- Peritrichous: Flagella all over, Nonpolar.
- Atrichous: No flagella, cocci.
- Made up of filament (flagellin), Hook, Basal Body.
- Chemotaxis: How bacteria move (+=move towards something they want, -= moving away)
- Running means the bacteria is moving, tumbling refers to stopping.
- Spirochetes: spiral cells that move by means of the Axial Filament.
- It wraps around a cell.
- Movements causes the outer sheath to move, which makes it easier to move through tissue.
External Prokaryotic Structures (Attachments)
- Fimbrae: Helps the cell adhere (stick) to things, man (can range from 2-100), biofilms.
- Pili: Longer, twitching motility, gliding, conjugate (connected between 2 cells and assist in horizontal gene transfer).