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European maritime technology, exploration, and domination (1492-1945)
- we have the tendency to generalize & homogenize colonialism
- European monarchies were able to put a person on a coast anywhere in the world
- Portugese were the first to round Africa and columbus's voyage were both intents to find a route to Asia
- It speaks to their power and wealth as well as the extreme risk taking behavior they would endeavor
- Spanish and Portugal invested in this
- Spain had the most modern and up to date Navy
- However, we under analyze thinking that the crowns were in complete control of everything. Instead people such as Hernando de Soto had his own agenda that happened separately from the spanish crown.
Dutch East India Company
- one of the first multinationals in the world
- Dutch and English east india company - formed by investors who pulled ther resources together to create ships for navy's to minimize risk
- Spain presided over maritime technology because they were the primary investors, but it is not the same for the dutch, english or french where they have a little wiggle room with what people are doing
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
- Spain and porutgal were the first to reach the new world
- tension between the monarchies sprout in how it should be divided up and who owns what
- they settle this with the treaty Dividing the new world along a north-south meridian 970 miles west of Cape Verde Islands where spain took the west and portugal took the east
- we can see a direct result of the treaty today with the languages spoken their today
The british empire
- east india company allowed them to have navy with their primary interest is in revenue
The French Colonial Empire also had 2 phases, (1600-1797) and (1797-1950s)
- Unlike the English Empire, French colonialism was tied to the state, the church, and armed forces
- They became more involved after the french indian wars to impose french as the language of choice and convert people's to catholicism and these activities intensified more in the second phase
- french loss to the british, british loss the colonies - areas that they have colonized are apparent today becuase places like Africa still speak french
- french foreign legion did a lot of fighting in Africa and decided to stay there due to the legion's loss.
Where do the countries on the map originate from
- what happened to these places when colonial powers move out?
- They resort to borders and boundaries that have already been established by colonial powers
- middle east today - Britain drew up those boundaries
- Gertrude Bell - explorer who worked with british government involved with tribal activities?????
- example dutch controlled Rwanda did census and identified people legally on how many cattles they owned.
- rwanda genocide happened using old dutch system and whoever was targeted for termination was not based on ethnic identity, but rather the dutch way of looking at things
- overarching ways of dividing territories all with their own consequences
refers to the destruction of a cultural aspect of people
The Inheritance: Centuries of War and Religious Fervor Arrive in the New World
- In order to contextualize what spanish were doing we need to be aware of what europe was doing and how we contextualize the other "noneuropeans"
- by the time of columbus religious wars were happening
- spain and portugal the forefront of this and had muslim invaders at the doorstep
- right before columbus spain and portugal fought in a war of conquest against the moors because they did not belong to same religious denomination, which finished in 1492
Pánfilo de Narváez (1470-1528)
- sent to new world to stop cortez who was rampaging through Mexico without regard to spanish crown orders
- successful in the interception
- then turns onto florida engaged in a bloody campaign using the same rules
- conducted extortion activities by holding elites in native communites ransom to extract resources or information
- married daughter of an elite
- his expedition dwindled from 400 - 100
- he was trying to get to the carolinas
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (1490-1559)
- on nervaez's expedition
- pleaded for Narvaez not to seperate the expedition due to safety concern, but he refused.
- Tide winds swept Narvaez's raft and he died, but de Vaca survived
- de Vaca made it to the carolinas returned to spain and wrote la Ralacion (the account) latter renamed Naufragios (the ship wreck)
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
- sent to florida by spanish crown to destroy French huguenots who rebelled against french catholocism and were encouraged to move to the new world
- in order to destroy them he had to beat his french counterpart Jean Ribault, which he did.
- founded St. Augustine - the oldest and contuosuly inhabited in North America
- met his end in Battle of Santander
Hernando de Soto (1496-1542)
15 million (estimate) to 2 million.
- interaction with native community in north america was accustomed to a legacy of blood, extortion, cruelty, and disease
- native populations become aware of this
- french essayist Michel Montaigne wrote about the actions taken by spanish and the portugese noting their concern that were in opposition of the crown's activities - considered a poor essayist
British Exploration and Exploitation
- spanish and portugese not only ones at the end of the extreme so were the british
- Virginia Company of London -a stock company that wanted to get in on the north american resources noting that spanish were slow to sail up the east coast because of their interest in the interior
- Captain John Smith (1580-1631) put in charge by the virginia company to found Jamestown in modern day virginia
- these early colonists were pre-carious and Of the 600 colonists who arrived only 150 survived the first year.
- Powhatans - term used for native group that lived in the area where jamestown was founded. their relationship was strained since the beginning due to the colonists heavy handed approach to negotiation
The Ebb and Flow of Empire
- ideas of landownership are garnered on The Ebb and Flow of Empire or coming and going of where european powers determine they ought to be
- there are differences between colonists and their strategies that are constantly being shifted in order to provide favorable outcomes
- at the same time native groups are not unaware of the different colonists and their politics
- pre date european contact
- through oral histories we get an idea of what politics and alliances were like before europeans come
- iroquois confederacy - an alliance with other groups such as the senaca, cayuga, oneida, and the mohawk
- not clear when they formed, but it was pre contact
- oral tradition state that two leaders Dekanawida and Hiawatha were responsible in the formation of the alliance in order to thwart violence
- The Kwedech recounted by the Mi’kmaq of Eastern Canada as having been expelled from the St. Lawrence River
- Jacques Cartier - notes that their was an intrusive presence of the Iroquis
- Samuel de Champlain - notes that they are no longer their
- european colonial activities dont occur seperately from native american groups - conflict and alliances happen inter meshed with each other creating a complex state of affairs.
Shawnee and Delaware
- shawnee and delaware were comprised of a large number of different tribes
- areas occupied by french, english, and dutch
- dutch west india company did not want to cause outrage with native groups in terms of the acquisition of land
- dutch were linent in their approach
- english much harsher
- shawnee and delaware new it was more favorable to work with the dutch because they were fair compared to the english
- this causes conflict
- the delaware were starting to move and it begins this Gradual westward expansion that causes conflict with the shawnee, which then put pressure on the Iroquis, which put pressure on the huron, and so on.
- native groups involved in trading also
- Seven Year War (1756-1763) - all great powers in Europe stand in war against each other - bloodiest conflict in history
- it ends with treaty of paris in 1763
- George III levy's the proclamation of 1763 which proclaims that there can be no settlement of europeans west of the Appalachians
- shawnee and delaware set themselves up as traders
- not a unidirectional process - native american groups are active agents
- Founding of St. Louis 1763
- trade between native american communites and colonists
- native americans were effective hunters and so the fur trade sprang from this trading fur for beads with colonists
- venetian trade beads - massed produced in europe (done by pulling glass, hole punched, and cut into pieces)
- columbus brings glass beads to trade in October 12 1492
- beads are seen as a currency
- Jamestown in 1622 established a glass bead factory which was destroyed within a year by the powhatans
- trade, conflict, land grants, alliances, etc all shift within themselves
- Padre Beads - spun beads manufactured by china
- captain cook noted it was impossible to get anything done without having padre beads
- vaseline beads - spun beads with conical puncture - it was high status beads
- used to trade for fur
- ex. hudson bay company paid 6 beads for fur
- ecological consequences of fur exploitation should be considered that puts pressure on the ecosystem where everyone is involved.
- St. Louis established to exploit the fur trade - has french governor occupied by shawnee and delaware groups and other European powers bringing colonial powers together after the seven years war
- consequences for everyone