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3 items essential to every x-ray unit
- 1. control panel
- 2. x-ray tube
- 3. high-tension transformer
The x-ray unit must have its own ______
______ has two filaments made of tungsten
Has a high melting point of _______ and high atomic number of ______. Heat and electron absorbent. High melting point so very resistant to heat.
- > 3410°C (6170°F)
- > 74
Cathode houses a focusing cup, inside the focusing cup are the ______ made of ______.
It is here, on the ________ of the _______ that x-rays are produced and it is here that the exceptional amount of heat must be dissipated.
2 types of anodes:
1. ______ mainly used for____
2. ______ mainly used for____
- 1. stationary - large animal
- 2. rotating - small animal
Anode is made of _______ or a _________ alloy.
- >tungsten molybdenum
The _____ is mounted within the rotating anode and directs the x-rays down to ______.
- > target
- > object being radio graphed
Anode serves several functions:
- 1. mechanically supports the electron target
- 2. serves as thermal dissipator
- 3. electrical conductor
Things that can go wrong that affects the process of taking a radiograph ---->
- disfigured rotors
- rotors seizing and cracking anode
Intensifying screen made of ______ and ______.
The base of the intensifying screen is made of _________, virtually indestructible.
plastic / polymer
Speed at which x-rays are converted to light by the individual phosphors is called the
intrinsic conversion efficiency of the phosphor
________ is the response of the screen both in brightness and over time.
Patient thickness and conformation will determine _______.
The mechanical variables available to enhance contrast are collectively called ________.
______ - the intensity of the radiation at a location is inversely proportional to the square of its distance from the source of the radiation.
Inverse square law
______ is the power behind the x-ray
Energy is transformed when the photons bounce off one another or the atoms within the patient. This excess of energy results in ______.
____ is responsible for penetration of the x-ray beam. Power behind the x-ray. If ______ is too high there will be no contrast. ____ greatly affects contrast.
kV generally range ____ - ____
40 - 125
mA is responsible for _____
3 factors to be adjusted on generator are _____, ______, and _______.
kV, mA, and time
Developing technique charts:
3 "commandments" (bullshit)
- 1) x-ray unit be calibrated by qualified personel
- 2) technique chart set up to reflect the thickness of the body part being radiographed
- 3) measurement must be made at the area of particular interest
The log book must include:
patients name, identifiers, the views taken, measurements, and the technical factors
____ is an enemy of resolution.
Foreshortening or elongation of a body part due to angulation of the body part, the x-ray receptor, or the tube.
Source image distance (SID) on most veterinary radiography units is _____ inches
The unit immediately beneath the x-ray tube is the ________.
_______ has one standard function and that is to produce a light beam that is coincident with the x-ray beam and covers the region of interest.
The radiation produced in this manner has much lower energy than the usable photon stream.
______ are used to transmit light evenly through a specially produced glass in order to identify and interpret radiographic images.
Device in which vertical strips of metal interspace with a radiolucent material and are enclosed by metal straps and mounted into an oscillating tray that is connected to the exposure switch on the radiography unit.
The potter-bucky diaphragm was designed to eliminate ______ and improve ______.
- scatter radiation
The _________ is the formula that determines the increase in technical factors to compensate for this absorption.
Grid conversion factor (GCF)
The temperature of the dark room should be maintained at ______. Humidity should be maintained at ______.
Two main components in developer are _______ and ________.
Their main function is to reduce ________ in the film emulsion to _________.
- silver halide
- metallic silver
Radiographic chemical are to be kept at a temperature of _______.
Removes unexposed silver halide, and it further hardens the image to the base.
Steps to processing the film:
1. _________ - duration? (68°F)
2. _________ - duration? (68°F)
3. _________ - duration? (68°F)
- Developer - 4 minutes with agitation
- Fixer - 8 minutes with agitation
- Wash - 12 minutes with agitation
Inside the CR cassette is a single intensifying screen that traps the image by means of a _______________. In this form the screen is referred to as an _________.
- photostimulable phosphor
- imaging plate (IP)
The front of the imaging plate is coated with a photostimulable phosphor (PSP), usually ___________.
Noise is greatest in CR at the lower levels as a result of