Radiology Final (book)

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Author:
jill.hinton
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301967
Filename:
Radiology Final (book)
Updated:
2015-05-02 22:02:32
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vtht radiology joyce
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Radiology final (book)
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  1. 3 items essential to every x-ray unit
    1.
    2.
    3.
    • 1. control panel
    • 2. x-ray tube
    • 3. high-tension transformer
  2. The x-ray unit must have its own ______
    Power line
  3. ______ has two filaments made of tungsten
    Cathode
  4. Has a high melting point of _______ and high atomic number of ______. Heat and electron absorbent. High melting point so very resistant to heat.
    • Tungsten
    • > 3410°C (6170°F)
    • > 74
  5. Cathode houses a focusing cup, inside the focusing cup are the ______ made of ______.
    • > filaments
    • > tungsten
  6. It is here, on the ________ of the _______ that x-rays are produced and it is here that the exceptional amount of heat must be dissipated.
    • >focal spot
    • >anode
  7. 2 types of anodes:
    1. ______ mainly used for____
    2. ______ mainly used for____
    • 1. stationary - large animal
    • 2. rotating - small animal
  8. Anode is made of _______ or a _________ alloy.
    • >tungsten
    • >tungsten molybdenum
  9. The _____ is mounted within the rotating anode and directs the x-rays down to ______.
    • > target
    • > object being radio graphed
  10. Anode serves several functions:
    1.
    2.
    3.
    • 1. mechanically supports the electron target
    • 2. serves as thermal dissipator
    • 3. electrical conductor
  11. Things that can go wrong that affects the process of taking a radiograph ---->
    • disfigured rotors
    • rotors seizing and cracking anode
  12. Intensifying screen made of ______ and ______.
    • base
    • emulsion layer
  13. The base of the intensifying screen is made of _________, virtually indestructible.
    plastic / polymer
  14. Speed at which x-rays are converted to light by the individual phosphors is called the
    intrinsic conversion efficiency of the phosphor
  15. ________ is the response of the screen both in brightness and over time.
    Screen speed
  16. Patient thickness and conformation will determine _______.
    subject contrast
  17. The mechanical variables available to enhance contrast are collectively called ________.
    Radiographic contrast
  18. ______ - the intensity of the radiation at a location is inversely proportional to the square of its distance from the source of the radiation.
    Inverse square law
  19. ______ is the power behind the x-ray
    kV Kilovoltage
  20. Energy is transformed when the photons bounce off one another or the atoms within the patient. This excess of energy results in ______.
    scatter radiation
  21. ____ is responsible for penetration of the x-ray beam. Power behind the x-ray. If ______ is too high there will be no contrast. ____ greatly affects contrast.
    kV
  22. kV generally range ____ - ____
    40 - 125
  23. mA is responsible for _____
    density
  24. 3 factors to be adjusted on generator are _____, ______, and _______.
    kV, mA, and time
  25. Developing technique charts:
    3 "commandments" (bullshit)
    1)
    2)
    3)
    • 1) x-ray unit be calibrated by qualified personel
    • 2) technique chart set up to reflect the thickness of the body part being radiographed
    • 3) measurement must be made at the area of particular interest
  26. The log book must include:
    patients name, identifiers, the views taken, measurements, and the technical factors
  27. ____ is an enemy of resolution.
    motion
  28. Foreshortening or elongation of a body part due to angulation of the body part, the x-ray receptor, or the tube.
    Distortion
  29. Source image distance (SID) on most veterinary radiography units is _____ inches
    40
  30. The unit immediately beneath the x-ray tube is the ________.
    Collimator
  31. _______ has one standard function and that is to produce a light beam that is coincident with the x-ray beam and covers the region of interest.
    collimator
  32. The radiation produced in this manner has much lower energy than the usable photon stream.
    Scattered radiaiton
  33. ______ are used to transmit light evenly through a specially produced glass in order to identify and interpret radiographic images.
    Illuminators
  34. Device in which vertical strips of metal interspace with a radiolucent material and are enclosed by metal straps and mounted into an oscillating tray that is connected to the exposure switch on the radiography unit.
    Potter-Bucky diaphragm
  35. The potter-bucky diaphragm was designed to eliminate ______ and improve ______.
    • scatter radiation
    • contrast
  36. The _________ is the formula that determines the increase in technical factors to compensate for this absorption.
    Grid conversion factor (GCF)
  37. The temperature of the dark room should be maintained at ______. Humidity should be maintained at ______.
    • 68°F (20°C)
    • 40% - 60%
  38. Two main components in developer are _______ and ________.
    Their main function is to reduce ________ in the film emulsion to _________.
    • phenidone
    • hydroquinone
    • silver halide
    • metallic silver
  39. Radiographic chemical are to be kept at a temperature of _______.
    68°F
  40. Removes unexposed silver halide, and it further hardens the image to the base.
    Fixer
  41. Steps to processing the film:
    1. _________ - duration? (68°F)
    2. _________ - duration? (68°F)
    3. _________ - duration? (68°F)
    4. _________
    • Developer - 4 minutes with agitation
    • Fixer - 8 minutes with agitation
    • Wash - 12 minutes with agitation
    • Dryer
  42. Inside the CR cassette is a single intensifying screen that traps the image by means of a _______________. In this form the screen is referred to as an _________.
    • photostimulable phosphor
    • imaging plate (IP)
  43. The front of the imaging plate is coated with a photostimulable phosphor (PSP), usually ___________.
    barium fluorohalide
  44. Noise is greatest in CR at the lower levels as a result of

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