Microbiology Final Exam Material

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Microbiology Final Exam Material
2015-05-02 23:34:30
Microbiology Fungi

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  1. What is a distinguishing feature regarding the cell wall of fungi vs bacteria?
    Fungi cell walls contain mannan, glucan, and chitin.

    Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, and techie acid
  2. What similarity do fungi share with arthropods?
    They both contain chitin
  3. What is the ploidy of fungi after nuclear fusing?
  4. What is the only organelle lacking in fungi that are present in bacteria?
  5. What is the dominant sterol in fungi?

    A. ergosterol
    B. phytosterol
    C. campesterol
    D. cholesterol
    A. ergosterol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Fungi have a very limited response to antibiotics. Which antibiotic is known to have some modest activity against fungi?

    A. Flagyl
    B. chloramphenicol
    C. Z-pak
    D. tetracycline
    A. Flagyl (metronidazole)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Why would penicillin NOT work on fungi?
    Penicillin acts on the cell wall of bacteria. Fungi do not contain the same constituents for targeting in their cell wall.

    More specifically, bacteria contain transpeptidase which is used in cell wall synthesis. Transpeptidase accepts penicillin by binding with it, thereby rendering it inactive, preventing transpeptidase from creating cross linking in the cell wall.
  8. What is a major reason why fungi don't respond well to DNA synthesis inhibitors?
    They don't contain 70S ribosomes, which is a major target in prokaryotes.
  9. What is a saprophyte?
    A plant, fungus, or microorganism that lives on dead or decaying organic matter.
  10. The majority of fungi are saprophytic.

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  11. Fungi are strict anaerobes.

    A. True 
    B. False
    B. False

    Fungi are strict aerobes
  12. What is the only known motile species of fungi?
  13. When do pathogenic fungi produce toxins?

    A. inside the host during dimorphic phase
    B. once an infection is established
    C. inside the host
    D. outside of the host
    D. outside of the host

    (Fungi only produce toxins outside of the host)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Fungi can only reproduce sexually

    A. True
    B. False
    B. False

    (Fungi can reproduce sexually and asexually)
  15. What are conidia?
    Fungal spores produced by either a blastic (budding) process or a thallic process, where hyphal segments fragment into individual cells.

    Seen in Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and dermatophytes.
  16. What type of reproduction is responsible for producing conidia?
    Asexual reproduction
  17. Which form of reproduction in fungi produce a variety of spores that are typically named after the group of fungi they come from?
    Sexual reproduction
  18. Most fungi grow to have which morphological feature?
    branching filamentous tubes (hyphae)
  19. Multiple hyphae are referred to as
  20. What is the morphology of mold?
    hyphae that form mycelium
  21. What are the morphological form of yeast?
    budding-ovoid cells
  22. What are the two forms of dimorphic fungi?
    mold and yeast
  23. What form do dimorphic fungi exist in in nature?
  24. What form do dimorphic fungi exist in in humans?
    yeast (at 37°C)
  25. What is thermodimorphism?
    the ability to exist as a mold at certain temperatures and a yeast ABOVE those temps required for molds.
  26. What kind of diagnostic tests are involved in fungal infections?
    • 1.Histopathologic tests
    • 2.culture and sensitivity tests
    • 3.slide with stains
    • 4.KOH
  27. Which test is used during a fungal diagnosis, that allows for clearing of skin and hair by way of dissolving; regarded as the simplest test to determine a fungal infection.
    KOH (potassium hydroxide); dissolves skin and hair, allowing you to see the hyphae under a microscope
  28. Fungal infections in humans changes the growth characteristics of fungi.

    A. True
    B. False
    B. False

    (growth in humans serves no benefit or disadvantage to fungi)
  29. Most fungal diseases are by accident (meaning fungi are not actively seeking to infect humans)

    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
  30. What are the classes of fungi?
    Primary and opportunistic
  31. Where are "primary" fungi found?
    in the environment/soil