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2015-05-02 23:09:49

Vaccinology lecture
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  1. vaccine
    preparation of a weakened or killed pathogen (i.e. bacterium or virus) or portion of pathogen that stimulates antibody production or cellular immunity against the pathogen but can't cause infection
  2. objective of vaccines
    • decrease or prevent infectious disease
    • greatest # in at-risk population
    • no more frequently than necessary
    • only if likely to be exposed
    • benefits outweight risks
    • protect public health
  3. how vaccines work
    • expose naive immune system
    • immune system reacts
    • attacked again in the future
    • immune system recognizes pathogen
    • activates more quickly
  4. white blood cells
    cells of the immune system defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign material
  5. lymphocytes
    one branch of WBC, there are 3 types (T, B and natural killer cells)
  6. T-Lymphocytes
    cell mediated immune response (helper T-cells and cytotoxic T-cells)
  7. B-Lymphocytes
    Humoral immune response (Plasma Cells)
  8. Natural killer cells
    lymphocyte, part of the innate immune system
  9. antigen
    protein or sugar contained on a surface of a cell, foreign object or infectious organism that the immune system can recognize and decide to attack
  10. antibody
    a protein made by a B cell that binds to specific antigen that neutralizes the antigen
  11. 2 types of immune response
    innate, acquired
  12. innate immune response
    • (natural) 
    • skin, hair, tears, normal mirobial flora, mucus, acidity of stomach, neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells
    • first line of defense
    • already active, immediate
  13. acquired immune response
    • (adaptive)
    • recognizes specific foreign invader, destroys it and remembers
    • antigen specific
    • includes cell mediated and humoral immunity
    • passive vs active
  14. passive acquired immunity
    • animal receives pre-formed antibodies made by another animal.  
    • Natural (maternal transfer of antibodies. IgG, transplacental or colostrum)
    • Artificial (adminitration of antiserum or antitoxin)
  15. active acquired immunity
    • exposure to antigen activates cell mediated (T lymphocytes) and humoral immunity (B lymphocytes), leads to development of memory T-cells and B-cells
    • two types: natural (infection) or artifical (vaccination)
  16. cell mediated immunity
    immune system attributed to the T-cell (T-lymphocytes) and cytotoxic T cells.  These T-cells are involved in regulating the antibody forming function of B-cells (B lymphocytes) as well as directly attacking foreign antigen
  17. Humoral immunity
    immune system attributed to B-cell (B lymphocytes) and the antibodies they produce.  Secreted antibodies bind to antigen on the surface of invading microbes which flags them for destruction
  18. factors that influence vaccine effectiveness
    • high levels of maternal antibodies (can last as long as 16 weeks, usually 9-12)
    • inadequate nutrition or starvation
    • disease, so avoid vaccinating sick animals
    • other stressors like pregnancy, parturition, lactation, weather/temp/humidity changes, travel, overcrowding, trauma, strenuous exercise, general anesthesia
  19. types of vaccines (7)
    • traditional: inactivated killed, modified live (attenuated)
    • new: recombinant (subunit, gene-deleted, live vectored), DNA
  20. killed inactive vaccine
    • a vaccine composed of microbes or microbe parts (nonrecombinant subunit vaccine) that have been chemically treated or heated to kill the vaccine.  
    • Doesn't replicate in body, so less response, weaker immunity
    • must use massive quantities or adjuvent to improve immunity
  21. killed nonrecombinant subunit vaccines
    vaccines that contain one pure or semi pure antigen
  22. adjuvent
    • additives added to vaccine which increase the effectiveness of the immune response to the vaccine
    • not all benign, increase risk of allergic rx, anaphylaxis, injection site reactions and feline vaccination associated fibrosarcoma
  23. advantages of killed vaccines
    • unlikely to cause disease
    • cause less immunosuppression and vulnerability to other diseases
    • Store for longer periods
  24. modified live/attenuated/avirulent vaccine
    • utilizes weakened bacteria or virus to elicit immune response
    • has been altered to non-disease causing state
    • alive but incapable of causing disease
    • when injected they replicate creating large numbers, make greater immune response
  25. advantages of modified live vaccine
    • more amplified and longer lasting immune response
    • more rapid induction of immunity
    • only small amount of viral material needs to be injected (replicates in body), less virus reduces risk of allergic and injection site rx
    • newer vaccines achieve long lasting antibody after single dose
    • no adjuvent
    • can be given other routes
    • cost less
  26. disadvantages of killed vaccines
    • poorer, shorter-duration cell mediated and humoral immunity
    • greater risk of allergic rx and injection site rx
    • some not safe for pregnant
    • min 2 doses (mostly)
    • more expensive
  27. disadvantages of modified live vaccines
    • Must be stored carefully or dies/becomes ineffective
    • potential to cause disease in immunocompromised or pregnant animals
    • some cause severe complications
    • wrong route can cause cause severe illness
    • causes relative immunosuppression
    • shelf life shorter (no preservatives)
  28. 3 categories of recombinant vaccines
    • USDA recognizes 3 categories
    • 1. inactivated recombinant organisms or purified antigens derived from such organisms (subunit vaccine)
    • 2. live organisms with deleted genes (gene deleted vaccine)
    • 3. live vectors with foreign gene insert (live virus vectored vaccine)
  29. Recombinant technology/how to make recombinant vaccine
    • connects two different DNA segments
    • inserts gene of interest into vector like bacterial plasmid. Vector cloned and put into mammalian, yeast or special bacteria host. Host cell makes protein, can be isolated and used to make vaccine.
  30. recombinant subunit vaccine
    a vaccine that uses merely one component of an infectious agent, rather than the whole, to stimulate an immune response
  31. advantages of subunit recombinant vaccines
    • contains only proteins that stim immune system to attack, so not infectious and safe for immunocompromised
    • reduce amt of antigen due to elimination of irrelevant antigens
  32. disadvantages of subunit recombinant vaccine
    • does not stim immune system as well as whole organism vaccines
    • many need adjuvent to increase effectiveness
  33. gene deleted recombinant vaccine
    vaccine produced from organisms that have been altered to either delete or inactivate a gene (new form of attenuation)
  34. advantages of gene deleted recombinant vaccines
    • safer live vaccine
    • often delivered via natural route of infection (mucosal route)
    • can be used as marker vaccine (absence of specific antigens from the virus can be used to differentiate between vaccine virus and natural "wild-type" virus
  35. disadvantages of gene-deleted recombinant vaccines
    • potential exists for virus to revert to original virulent state
    • degree of protection could be limited since immune response is restricted to antigens present on the virus
  36. Live vectored recombinant vaccine
    potential for reduced immune response because vaccine is using only specific protective proteins (Merial Purevax recombinant FeLV Vaccine (no adjuvent))
  37. DNA vaccine
    Vaccine composed of naked DNA (no proteins, no vector virus) that is injected into host.  DNA is taken into host cells and proteins coded by DNA are produced, create immune response.
  38. Advantages of DNA vaccine
    • reduce vx rx
    • easier to make/store
    • potential of overcoming maternal antibody interference
    • increased duration of immunity
  39. disadvantages of DNA vaccines
    • limited to protein immunogens (no good for non-protein based antigens like bacterial polysaccharides)
    • potential for atypical processing of bacterial or parasite proteins
  40. noninfectious vaccines
    • inactivated, killed, dead, subunit, plasmid DNA, avenomous
    • 2 doses (2-6weeks), parental, one transdermal, no replication, 3+ weeks until immune, 1-3 year duration, needs booster, adjuvent usu. required, not in pregnant, great stability
  41. infectious vaccines
    • attenuated, avirulent, modified live, recombinant viral vectored
    • 1 dose adequate, multiple routes, no transdermal, replicates in host, immunity in a few days (faster), duration longer (years to life), no adjuvent, not for pregnant, reconstituted not stable (1 hour after), lyophilized stable.
  42. 3 types of veterinary vaccines
    • viral
    • bacterial
    • parasitic (protozoal, helminth/ectoparasite)
  43. bacterin
    • suspension of killed or attenuated bacteria for use as a vaccine
    • less effective than viral
    • partial, short-lived immunity
    • higher incidence of rx than viral
  44. protozoal vaccine
    • live protozoal attenuated vaccine and killed/subunit protozoal vaccine (coccidia, babesia)
    • Farm animals, some canine
    • no longer made due to limited use
  45. weird vet vaccines (2)
    • allergy vaccine
    • cancer vaccine (melanoma)
  46. vet reproductive vaccines
    • vaccine against reproductive hormones
    • vaccine against gamete antigen (sperm and oocyte antigens)
    • vaccines to increase fertility
  47. toxoid
    • "vaccine" using a bacterial toxin that has been treated to destroy its toxicity but still produces an antibody response when injected into an animal
    • protection against toxin without live organism (safer)
    • shorter duration of effectiveness (may have adjuvent)
  48. antitoxin and antiserum
    • not vaccines, antibodies against specific toxins which have been harvested from immune system of another animal.  Antitoxins are used to reduce the level and damage caused by the release of the bacterial toxin
    • quick protection against toxin, but short-lived, may have preservatives
  49. Intranasal
    better protection against respiratory viral and bacterial infections, faster, single dose required, rx rare, works while maternal antibodies are present
  50. transdermal
    aerosolized vaccine particles that are forced at high pressure through the skin with an insturment, avoids risk of conventional needle-administered vax and vax-associated inflammation (melanoma)
  51. monovalent vaccine
    • designed to immunize against a single antigen or single microorganism
    • can select only desired antigen to administer (avoid previous rx)
    • more injections necessary so more protein and adjuvent, increases adverse
  52. multivalent/polyvalent
    • immunize against two or more strains of same microorganism, or against two or more microorganisms
    • convenient, fewer injections, less expensive
    • rate adverse rx increases as the number of antigens increases
  53. Where to give feline vaccines
    • FVRCP SQ lat right forelimb below elbow
    • rabies SQ lat right hind limb below stifle
    • FeLV, FIV SQ lat left hind limb below stifle
  54. core vaccine (3 cat examples, 4 dog examples)
    • recommended for all cats and dogs
    • feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, feline panleukopenia (feline parvo - FPV)
    • canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus-2 (infectious hepatitis), canine rabies
  55. noncore vaccine + 4 cat examples + 5 dog examples
    • vaccine administered to cats and dogs in a certain risk group
    • cats: feline leukemia virus (FeLV) vaccine, Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine, Chlamydophila felis, bordetella bronchiseptica
    • dogs: distemper measles virus, canine parainfluenza virus, bordetella bronchiseptica vaccines, borrelia burgdorferi vaccine, leptospirosa 4-way vaccine
  56. not generally recommended vaccine + 1 cat example + 3 dog examples
    • advisory panel believes these vaccines have little or no indication
    • not been found to induce clinically meaningful immune response in most cats, may have high adverse
    • Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) vaccine
    • leptospirosa interrogans (2-way), canine coronavirus, canine adenovirus-1
  57. Feline herpes virus
    common viral respiratory disease.  Sneezing, nasal d/c, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, affects reproductive tract, complications in pregnancy
  58. feline calicivirus
    • common viral disease
    • URI signs, pneumonia, oral ulceration, occasionally arthritis
  59. feline panleukopenia
    extremely contagious virus of the parvovirus group causing disease with severe vomiting, high fever, anorexia, lethargy, diarrhea (often bloody), seizure and high mortality rate
  60. rabies
    • fatal virus infection attacking CNS
    • vaccination is core by law
  61. distemper
    viral disease in dogs characterized by loss of appetite, catarrhal nasal and ocular discharge, fever, lethargy, vomiting, neurologic signs and death
  62. parvo
    • highly contagious, often fatal viral disease of dogs, affecting intestinal tract or cardiac system.
    • vomiting, severe often blood diarrhea, depression, high fever, loss of appetite
  63. canine adenovirus type 2
    Cav-2 causes infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) but vaccine also protects against CAV-1 which causes cough, pneumonia, liver and kidney failure (canine hepatitis)
  64. canine influenza
    • canine H3N8 virus (canine influenza virus, CIV), new influenza in dogs
    • flu-like symptoms: c/s, nasal d/c, pneumonia, death.  Killed virus vaccine, SQ, .
  65. vx rx (4 major 1 minor)
    • 1. Transient lethargy
    • 2. injection site rx (pruritus, swelling, abscess, granuloma, sarcoma, pain, alopecia
    • 3. systemic rx (anaphylaxis, angioedema, hives, vomiting +/- diarrhea, fever, lethargy, neuro/behavioral, immune disorder like IMHA, IMT, polyarthritis, glomerulonephritis)
    • 4. death
    • 5. live IN vx cause mild signs of dz they are preventing