Lecture 8: Eukaryotic Cells (Quiz 4)

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Lecture 8: Eukaryotic Cells (Quiz 4)
2015-05-02 20:09:14
Prokaryotic & Euk. Cells Cont.
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  1. Organelles
    Each has its own function, some membrane bound and others aren't.
  2. Nucleus
    • Eukaryotes contain one!
    • Contains most of the DNA, surrounded by nuclear envelope, double membrane, has nuclear pores to allow substances in and out.
    • The DNA is also found in the Mitochondria.
    • DNA is twisted very tightly, and the protein Histones are used.
  3. Mitosis and Meiosis
    • Only in Eukaryotes.
    • Mitosis: 1 cell into 2, all DNA.
    • Meiosis: 1 cell into 4 gametes, each haploid or half the DNA.
  4. Nucleolus
    • Inside the nucleus.
    • Site of ribosomal (rRNA) production.
  5. Cytoskeleton
    • Made up of 3 main components.
    • Microtubules: Hollow, made of tubulin, Vesicles move along these with that protein (Kinesin) that looks like it is taking steps, major purpose is to deliver vesicles around the cell.
    • Microfilaments: Solid, made of actin, easy come apart and rebuild, help most in cell division.
    • Intermediate Filaments: More permanent, main fiber of cytoskeleton, anchors organelles in place.
  6. Plasma Membrane
    • Very similar to prokaryotes.
    • Double phospholipid layer, but has sterols, prokaryotes do not.
  7. Mitochondria
    • Powerhouse of cells.
    • ATP created within folds (Cristae) of own DNA.
    • Own replication.
    • It was a bacteria once upon a time.
    • Endosymbiosis: Another living organism living inside of another.
  8. Chloroplasts
    • Photosynthesis Organelle.
    • Thylakoids with chlorophyll inside.
    • Also its own DNA.
    • Its own replication.
    • Once was a bacteria.
    • Endosymbiosis: Another living organism living inside of another.
  9. Ribosomes
    • Protein Synthesis.
    • Attached to Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum.
    • Eukaryotes: 40S+60S=80S
    • Prokaryotes: 30S+50S=70S
  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Rough: Lipid and Membrane Synthesis.
    • Smooth: Ribosomes for proteins, phospholipids.
  11. Golgi Apparatus
    Protein modification and secretory vesicles, has a receiving and shipping side.
  12. Lysosomes
    • Fuses with vesicles.
    • Contains digestive enzymes to breakdown bacteria/viruses or dead cell material.
  13. Vacuoles
    Could store energy, air, water, waste, general storage device.
  14. Flagella
    • Part of motility.
    • Huge compared to prokaryotes.
    • 9+2 microtubules.
    • Wave motion.
    • Moves organism in different direction than prokaryotes (moves towards the right, away from)
  15. Cilia
    • Part of motility.
    • Thousands.
    • All move together.
  16. Pseudopods
    • Part of motility.
    • Cytoplasmic streaming (blob like).
    • Reaches a sort of arm out, pulls forward or food into it.
  17. Cell Wall
    • Eukaryotic animal cells do not have one.
    • Plants (cellulose and fungi) are made of Chitin (made of repeating NAG and NAMS, outer shell of lobsters).
    • Protzoa: They contain a flexible pellicle.
  18. Amazing Termite
    • Eukaryotic organisms in termites guts, bacteria is in them, they eat the wood.
    • Bacteria (Spirochetes) attached on outside of different Eukaryotes to propel them through guts of termites.
  19. Endocytosis
    Engulfment: Bringing something inside the cell, generally of food particles.
  20. Exocytosis
    Extrusion or kicking out of waste particles.
  21. Phagocytosis
    Engulfment using vacuoles, generally as a way to trap and kill invaders (Bacteria/Viruses).
  22. Passive Diffusion
    • Always High to Low along concentration gradient.
    • Never uses energy.
    • Facilitated: Protein needed, either pore/channel, or one that changes shapes and kicks substrate.
  23. Osmosis (Passive Diffusion)
    • Water across membrane.
    • Isotonic: Equal on both sides.
    • Hypotonic: Water is flowing INTO the cell (expands).
    • Hypertonic: Water moves OUT of the cell (shrinks).
  24. Active Transport
    • Always low to high along concentration gradient.
    • Always requires energy - ATP.
    • Always uses a protein - changes confirmation to kick in substrate.
  25. Metabolism
    The sum of all chemical reactions in a living organisms.
  26. Catabolism
    • Releases energy.
    • Breakdown of complex organic molecules.
    • Hydrolytic reactions.
    • ATP synthesis.
  27. Anabolism
    • Energy-requiring reaction.
    • Biosynthetic.
    • Dehydration synthesis.
    • ATP breakdown.
  28. Collision Theory
    • All electrons, atoms, ions, molecules are always moving around and therefore collide with each other.
    • Breaks chemical bonds and creates new ones.
    • Several factors influence if a collision will cause a chemical reaction (speed of particles, their energy, specific conformations).
    • Molecules AB needs to be converted into their A and B (very small population, needs Activation Energy, Reaction Rate).
  29. Activation Energy
    • Part of Collision Theory.
    • The minimal amount of energy needed for a reaction to take place.
  30. Reaction Rate
    • Part of Collision Theory.
    • The frequency of collisions, raises the temperature, moves faster.
  31. Enzymes
    • They raise the reaction rate WITHOUT raising the temperature.
    • It lowers the amount of activation energy.
    • Proteins.
    • They are a biological catalyst (which speed up the reaction).
  32. 6 Different Types of Enzymes
    • Oxidoreductase: Oxidation-reduction, in which oxygen and hydrogen are gained or lost.
    • Transferase: Transfer of functional groups, such as an amino, acteyl, or phosphate group.
    • Hydrolase: Hydrolysis.
    • Lyase: Removal of groups of atmos without hydrolysis.
    • Isomerase: Rearrangement of atoms within a molecule.
    • Ligase: Joining of 2 molecules (usually derived from ATP).