-requires signal sequences (amphiphilic)
-signals removed after use
-requires energy use
~Use GTP and ATP for inner and outer membrane
~H+ for thylakoid membrane
THYLAKOID membrane (insertion of proteins into thy.mem.)
-SEC pathway (homologous to bacterial SEC protein) : uses components that are homologs of Sec proteins, which mediate protein translocation across bacterial plasma membrane.
-SRP (Signal Recognition Protein Pathway): uses chloroplast homolog of signal recognition particle (SRP)
-TAT(Twin Arginine tranlocation) pathway: 2 arg. are critical in signal seq that direct proteins in this pathway, which depends on H+ gradient across thylakoid membrane
-spontaneous insertion : doesn't require any protein translocator.
Chloroplasts membrance insertion