Micro Exam 3- part 2

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hansen419
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302026
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Micro Exam 3- part 2
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2015-05-03 22:52:37
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Microbiology
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Micro Exam 3- part 2
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  1. What are the common normal flora of the nervous system?
    None
  2. What are the common bacterial pathogens that cause meningitis?
    • Streptococcus agalactiae
    • Escherichia coli K1
    • Listeria monocytogenes
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Neisseria meningitidis
    • Haemophilus influenzae type b
  3. Which two bacteria produce neurotoxins?
    • Clostridium botulinum 
    • Clostridium tetani
  4. What is the definition of septic meningitis?
    Organism is cultivable, usually bacterial meningitis
  5. What is the definition of aseptic meningitis?
    Cause is not apparent, non-pyogenic, usually viral
  6. What are the most common symptoms associated with bacterial meningitis?
    fever, altered mental status, meningismus (headache, nuchal rigidty, photophobia)
  7. What are the vertically transmitted pathogens that cause meningitis?
    • Streptococcus agalactiae
    • Escherichia coli K1
    • Listeria monocytogenes
  8. Which bacteria is also known as Group B strep?
    Streptococcus agalactiae
  9. What is the main virulence factor of S. agalactiae?
    Capsule
  10. How is S. agalactiae diagnosed in the lab?
    • Beta hemolytic on blood agar
    • Catalase negative
    • Antigen detection from CSF
  11. What does the K1 in E coli K1 indicate?
    Capsular serotype (main virulence mechanism)
  12. How is E coli K1 diagnosed in the lab?
    • Lactose positive on MacConkey agar
    • K1 antigen detection from CSF
  13. How is Listeria monocytogenes commonly transmitted in adults?
    Ingestion of contaminated foods
  14. Listeria monocytogenes- gram and shape?
    Short gram positive bacilli (aka coccobacilli)
  15. Which cells can Listeria monocytogenes survive in?
    • Macrophages
    • M cells
    • Enterocytes
  16. Which part of the cell does Listeria monocytogenes survive in?
    Phagosome
  17. How does Listeria monocytogenes escape the phagosome?
    Via the production of listeriolysin O (a toxin)
  18. How does Listeria monocytogenes move cell to cell?
    Forms an actin tail (ActA protein)
  19. How is Listeria monocytogenes diagnosed in the lab?
    • Grows at 4 degrees C
    • Beta hemolytic
    • Motility- tumbling and umbrella
  20. Which pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis are transmitted via respiratory droplets?
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Haemophilus influenzae type B
    • Neissreia meningitidis
  21. What is the most common agent of acute bacterial meningitis?
    Strep pneumoniae
  22. Streptococcus pneumoniae- gram and shape?
    • Gram positive diplococci
    • (Pneumococcus)
  23. What are the main virulence mechanisms for S. pneumoniae?
    • Capsule
    • Tissue destruction
    • IgA Protease
  24. How is S. pneumoniae diagnosed in the lab?
    • Alpha hemolytic on blood agar
    • Catalase negative
    • Optochin sensitive
    • Antigen detection from CSF
  25. Which pathogen is associated with meningitis found in populations that live in close quarters?
    Neisseria meningitidis
  26. Neisseria meningitidis- gram and shape?
    • Gram negative diplococci 
    • (meningiococcus)
  27. What are the main virulence mechanisms of Neisseria meningitidis?
    • Capsule
    • IgA protease
    • LOS
    • Pili that undergo phase and antigenic variation
  28. How is Neisseria meningitidis diagnosed in the lab?
    • Grows best on chocolate agar or selective Neisseria media (Thayer-Martin, Martin-Lewis)
    • Environment: needs CO2 to grow, humid atmosphere 
    • Carbohydrate utilization test to determine species
  29. Haemophilus influenzae type B- gram and shape?
    • Gram negative coccobacilli or tiny rods 
    • (type b= capsular serotype)
  30. What are the main virulence factors of Haemophilus influenzae?
    • Capsule (composed of PRP)
    • IgA proteases
  31. How is Haemophilus influenzae diagnosed in the lab?
    • -Needs chocolate agar to grow: provides X (Hemin) and V (NAD) factors 
    • -Requires 5-10% CO2
    • -Can satellite around colonies of S. aureus in blood agar
  32. Clostridium- gram and shape?
    • Gram positive bacilli with endospores
    • Anaerobe

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