Psyc 100 Final

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Psyc 100 Final
2015-05-06 22:09:54
Psyc 100 final
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  1. Transduction
    The nervous system converts an external stimulus, like light or sound, into electrical signals within neurons
  2. Receptors
    Specialized cell responsible for converting external stimuli into neutral activity for a specific sensory system
  3. Absolute Threshold
    Lowest level of a stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect a change 50% of the time
  4. Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies
    Sensation we experience is determined by the nature of the sense receptor, not the stimulus
  5. Sensation
    Detection of physical energy by sense organs, which then send info to the brain
  6. Perception
    The brain's interpretation of raw sensory inputs
  7. Just Noticeable Difference (JND)
    The smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect
  8. Weber's Law
    There's a constant proportional relationship between the JND and the original stimulus intensity
  9. Top-Down Processing
    Conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectant. Starts processing in the association cortex followed by the primary visual cortex
  10. Bottom-Up Processing
    A whole is constructed from parts. Starts by primary visual cortex followed by the association cortex
  11. Figure-Ground
    Perceptually, we make an instantaneous decision to focus attention on what we believe to be the central figure and largely ignore what we believe to be the background
  12. Parallel Processing
    Attending to multiple senses at once
  13. Synesthesia
    • Experiencing cross-model sensations.
    • Ex. Tasting color
  14. Top Down Processing Example
    Expecting to see something
  15. Bottom-Up Processing Example
    Gathering pieces, visually, and putting them together
  16. How does the eye start the visual process?
    The eye captures light and converts it into neural messages
  17. Rods
    Receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in low levels of light
  18. Cones
    Receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in color
  19. Lens
    Part of the eye that changes curvature to keep images in focus
  20. Retina
    Membrane at the back of the eye responsible for converting light into neural activity
  21. Proximity
    Objects physically close to each other tend to be perceived as unified wholes
  22. Similarity
    All things being equal, we see similar objects as comprising a whole, much more so than dissimilar objects
  23. Closer
    When partial visual info is present, our brains fill in what's missing
  24. Continuity
    We still perceive objects as wholes, even if other objects block part of them
  25. Symmetry
    We perceive objects that are symmetrically arranged as wholes
  26. Color
    Psychological phenomenon, entirely subjective
  27. Motion
    Brain judging how things in the world constantly change
  28. Monocular Depth Cues
    Perceive three dimensions using only one eye
  29. Binocular Depth Cues
    Using both eyes to focus an object
  30. Measurements of Light
  31. Blindness
    Inability to see
  32. Color Blindness
    Inability to see colors
  33. Blindsight
    Being able to see without using your eyes
  34. After images
    Starring at one color then look away to see a different color image
  35. Myopia
    Nearsightedness, can't see far only near
  36. Hyperopia
    Farsightedness, can't see close only distant objects
  37. Opponent Process Theory
    • We perceive colors in terms of three pairs of opponent cells.
    • Red=>Green
    • Blue=>Yellow
  38. Trichormatic Theory
    We base our color vision based on three primary colors (Red, Blue, Green)
  39. Conductive Deafness
    Failure of the inner ear, eardrum
  40. Nerve Deafness
    Damage to the auditory nerve
  41. Disorders of Olfaction
    Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease can damage taste and/or smell
  42. Auditory Process
    The ear channels sound waves into the ear canal and converts the vibration to neural activity
  43. Somatosensory
    Sense of touch, temperature, and pain
  44. Proprioception
    Sense of body position and movement
  45. Vestibular Sense
    Sense of equilibrium or balance
  46. Timbre
    The quality or complexity of the sound
  47. Loudness
    Amplitude of wvae
  48. Pitch
    Frequency of wave
  49. Four levels of languages
    • Phonemes
    • Morphemes
    • Syntax
    • Extralinguistic Info
  50. Phonemes
    Sounds produced by our vocal apparatus
  51. Morphemes
    Smallest units of meaning in a language
  52. Syntax
    Grammatical rules, structure of a sentence
  53. Extralinguistic Info
    • Communication not part of context, but are critical to understand meaning
    • Ex. Sarcasm
  54. Language Acquisition (Language lvl and age)
    • Listening language
    •    In womb
    • Babbling learning to control noises
    •    0-1 years old
    • One word speech
    •    1-2 years old
    • Small phrases with syntax
    •    2-3 years old
    • More complex sentences and knows most grammar rules
    •    3+ years old
  55. Bilingualism Pros
    Metalinguistics (understanding the structures of languages)
  56. Bilingualism Cons
    Acquisition rate is lowered
  57. Imitation
    Babies hear language used in systematic ways, doesn't account for generality
  58. Nativism
    Children are born with some basic knowledge of how language works
  59. Social Pragmatics
    Children infer what words and sentences mean from context
  60. General Cognitive Processing
    Children's ability to learn languages from general cognitive skills
  61. Non-human Communication
    Animals communicate with scent, visual displays, or vocal with no new ideas
  62. Cognitive Economy
    Simplify what we attend to and keep the info we need for decision making to a manageable minimum
  63. Representative Heuristic
    Involves judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarit to a prototype
  64. Base Rate
    How common a characteristic or behavior is in general population
  65. Availability Heuristic
    How easily the thing comes to mind
  66. Salient
    Most noticeable or important
  67. Framing
    The way a question is formulated can influence how we make a decision
  68. Decision Making
    Process of selecting among a set of possible alternatives
  69. Mental Sets
    Being stuck in an idea or solution, inhibiting our ability to generate alternatives
  70. Functional Fixedness
    Difficulty conceptualizing that an object typically used for one purpose can be used for another
  71. Hindsight Bias
    Overestimate how accurately we could have predicted something to happen once we know the outcome
  72. Confirmation Bias
    Tendency to seek out evidences that supports our beliefs rejecting others
  73. Cross-Sectional Studies
    • Researchers examine people who are of different ages at a single point of time
    • Pros: Observe many different variables at once
    • Cons: Cohort Effect
  74. Cohort Effect
    Effects due to the fact that sets of people who lived during one time period can differ in some systematic way from people of another time period
  75. Longitudinal Studies
    • Track the development of the same group over time
    • Pros: observe changes over time within individuals as  a consequence of getting older
    • Cons: Costly, time-consuming, attrition
  76. Attrition
    Participants dropping out of the study before it is completed
  77. Gene Expression
    Activation or deactivation of genes by environmental experiences throughout development
  78. Nature via Nuture
    Individuals with certain genetic predispositions to seekout and create their own environments
  79. Gene-environment Interaction
    Situation in which the effects of genes depend on the environment they are expressed
  80. Three stages before birth
    • Germinal Stage
    • Embryonic Stage
    • Fetal Stage
  81. Germinal Stage
    Zygote begins to divide and double, forming a blastocyst (1-2 weeks)
  82. Zygote
    Fertilized egg
  83. Blastocyst
    A ball of identical cells that haven't taken part of a body part
  84. Embryonic Stage
    Limbs, facial features, and major organs take shape (2-8 weeks)
  85. Fetal Stage
    Physical maturation, no new structures are added (2-9 months)
  86. Three fetal development obsticles
    • Hazardous environment
    • Biological disorders
    • Premature birth
  87. Teratogens
    Environmental factor that can exert negative impact on prenatal development
  88. Piget's 4 Stages of Development
    • Sensorimotor
    • Preoperational
    • Concrete Operations
    • Formal Operations
  89. Sensorimotor
    No thought beyond immediate physical experiences
  90. Preoperational
    Able to think beyond here and now, but only see the world in their eyes and not others
  91. Concrete Operational
    Able to perform mental transformations but only on concrete, physical objects
  92. Formal Operational
    Able to perform hypothetical and abstract reasoning
  93. Schemas
    Generalizations based on experience with the world
  94. Assimilation
    Use old schema to understand new info
  95. Accommodation
    To update or create a schema
  96. Object Permanence
    Understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view. Sensorimotor stage children lack this (Ex. peek-a-boo)
  97. Egocentrism
    Inability to see the world from other's point of view. Children have this in the preoperational stage (Piaget's three mountain task)
  98. Theory of Mind
    Ability to reason about what other people know or believe. This lacks in the preoperational stage (false-belief task)
  99. Conservation
    Things stay the same even if appearances change. This lacks in the preoperational stage (cup-fill task or spacing pennies)
  100. Scaffolding
    Vygotskian learning mechanism in which parents provide initial assistance in children's learning but slowly remove structure as children become more competent
  101. Attachment
    The strong emotional connection we share with those to whom we feel closest
  102. Secure Attachment
    Explores room but checks if mom is watching
  103. Insecure-avoidant
    Explores room but doesn't check if mom is watching
  104. Insecure-Anxious
    Infant doesn't explore without mom's assistance
  105. Disorganized Attachment
    Unusual behaviors/ Unpredicted
  106. Four attachment styles
    • Secure
    • Insecure-Avoidant
    • Insecure-Anxious
    • Disorganized
  107. Four Parenting styles
    • Authoritarian
    • Authoritative
    • Permissive
    • Uninvolved
  108. Authoritarian
    Strict, use punishment with no affection but very controlling
  109. Authoritative
    Supportive, firm but fair, encourage independence but set limits. High warmth and high control
  110. Permissive
    Lenient with children, rarely uses punishment. High warmth but low control
  111. Uninvolved
    Neglecting parents. Low control Low warmth
  112. Three Temperament Styles
    • Easy
    • Difficult
    • Slow to Warmup
  113. Easy Temperament
    Babies that are adaptable and relaxed
  114. Difficult Temperament
    Babies that are fussy and easily frustrated
  115. Slow-to-Warm Temperament
    Babies that are disturbed by new stimuli but slowly adjust to them
  116. Preconventional Morality
    Punishment or reward decision
  117. Conventional Morality
    Focus on societal values
  118. Post conventional Morality
    Focus on internal moral principles that may differ from conventional societal values
  119. Kohlberg's Levels of Morality
    • Preconventional
    • Conventional
    • Postconventional
  120. Discrete Emotions Theory
    Humans experience only a small number of primary emotions that combine in complex ways
  121. James-Lange Theory
    Emotion result from our interpretations of our bodily reactions to stimuli
  122. Cannon-Bard Theory
    Emotion-provoking events leads simultaneously to an emotion and to bodily reactions
  123. Schacter-Singer's Two-factor Theory
    Every emotion has experience arousal, and then label where the arousal comes from to figure out what the emotion is
  124. Duchenne Smile
    Pan Am Smile
    • Genuine smile
    • Fake smile
  125. Emblems
    Gestures that convey conventional meanings recognized by members of a culture, such as a hand wave
  126. Illustrators
    Gestures that highlight or accentuate speech
  127. Manipulators
    Gestures in which one body part touches another part. Ex. biting fingernails
  128. Proxemics
    Study of personal space
  129. Affective Foracsting
    Ability to predict our own and others' happiness
  130. Durability Bias
    Belief that both our good and bad moods will last longer than they do
  131. Hedonic Treadmill
    Tendency for our moods to adapt to external circumstances
  132. Happiness
    • Money doesn't cause happiness, small correlation.
    • Increases with age
  133. Defensive Pessimism
    Strategy of anticipating failure and compensating for this expectation by mentally over preparing for negative outcomes
  134. High Self-esteem
    Evaluation of their own worth highly
  135. Low Self-esteem
    Evaluation of their own worth very low
  136. Drive Reduction Theory
    Certain drives like hunger, thirst, etc. motivate us to act in ways that minimize negative feelings and seek pleasure
  137. Yerkes-Dodson Law
    Inverted U-Shaped relation between arousal and mood and performance on the other. Optimal amount of arousal is lower for complex tasks compared to simple ones
  138. Approach Conflics
    Predisposition toward certain stimuli
  139. Avoidance Conflics
    Disposition away from certain stimuli
  140. Primary Needs
    Biological necessities like hunger and thirst
  141. Secondary Needs
    Psychological desires like needing for achievement
  142. Intrinsic Motivation
    Our desire or internal goals
  143. Extrinsic Motivation
    External goals
  144. Internal-External Theory
    Obese people are motivate to eat more by external cues than internal cues
  145. Leptin
    Hormone that signals the hypothalamus and brain stem to reduce appetite and increase the amount of energy used
  146. Portion Distortion
    Large plates will make us think we are eating less than a small plate
  147. Set Point
    Value that establishes a range of body and muscle mass we tend to maintain
  148. Proximity
    Physical nearness, a predictor of attraction
  149. Similarity
    Extent to which we have things in common with others, prediction of attraction
  150. Reciprocity
    Rule of give and take, predictor of attraction
  151. Physical Attractiveness
    Judging a person by their appearences
  152. Social Role
    Biological variables play a role in people's preferences
  153. Mere Exposure
    Seeing someone on a frequent basis
  154. Three types of Hate and Love
    • Intimacy, Passion, Commitment
    • Negative ""...
  155. Love Combinations
    • Intimacy and Passion: Romantic Love
    • Intimacy and Commitment: Companionate
    • Passion and Commitment: Fatuous Love
    • Intimacy, Passion and Commitment: Consummate Love
  156. Ways social situations influence behavior (4)
    • Need to belong Theory
    • Social Comparison Theory
    • Social Contagion
    • Social Facilitation
  157. Need-to-belong Theory
    Humans have a biologically based need for interpersonal connections
  158. Social Comparison Theory
    • We seek to evaluate our abilities and beliefs by comparing them with those of others.
    • Comparing with superior or inferior others
  159. Social Contagion
    Looking to others for knowledge or deciding how to act
  160. Social Facilitation
    • The presence of others can enhance our performance in certain situations.
    • Social Disruption: Choking
  161. Fundamental Attribution Error
    Overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on other people's behaviors
  162. Dispositional Influences
    Have too much attribution toward personality traits or intelligence
  163. Situational Influences
    Have too little attribution of the persons behavior to what's going on around them
  164. Conformity
    Tendency to alter our behaviors as a result or group pressure
  165. Conformity Influencers
    • Uniformity of Agreement
    • Differences in Wrong Answer
    • Size
  166. Uniformity of Agreement
    Everyone agrees, hard to be the one to go against the group
  167. Difference in the Wrong Anser
    Just one other person that differs from the majority can lower conformity
  168. Size
    Size majority makes a difference, but only up to a group of 5
  169. Social Loafing
    Individuals become less productive in a group because they feel less responsible
  170. Groupthink
    Group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking (Ex. Challenger/ Bay of Pigs)
  171. Group Polarization
    Group discussions to strengthen the dominant positions held by individual group members
  172. Cults
    Group of individuals who exhibit intense and unquestioning devotion to a single cause
  173. Obedience
    Adherance to instructions from those of higher authority
  174. Maximizing Obedience
    Watching the proceedings rather than participating
  175. Minimizing Obedience
    Closer proximity, experimenter disagreements
  176. Increasing bystandard Intervention
    Pluralistic ignorance, diffusion of responsibility
  177. Decreasing bystandard Intervention
    People alone rather than group
  178. Cognitive Dissonance
    Unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflictin thoughts or belief usually picking the one with the least anxiety
  179. Self-Perception Theory
    We acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviors
  180. Impression Management Theory
    We don't really change our attitudes, but report that we do
  181. Foot-in-Door Technique
    Making a small request before making a bigger one
  182. Door-in-face Technique
    Large request then small, but not too large
  183. Low-ball Technique
    Buy the product then seller adds more things on that you have to buy
  184. "But you're free" Technique
    Free not to do it
  185. Peripheral Route
    Snap judgments based on surface aspects
  186. Central Route
    Evaluating carefully and thoughtfully based on information content
  187. Prejudice
    The drawing of a conclusion of someone prior to evaluating the evidence. Show a negative attitude
  188. Stereotype
    A belief about a characteristics of members of a group thats applied to most members of the group
  189. Discrimination
    Negative behaviors toward others
  190. Three factors of Personality
    • Genetic factors
    • Shared environmental factos
    • Non-shared environmental factors
  191. Shared Environmental Factors
    Experiences that make individuals within the same family more alike. Not a strong influence in personality
  192. Non-Shared Environmental Factors
    Experiences that make individuals within the same family less alike. Important role in personality. Ex. Birth Order
  193. Genetic Factors
    Biology, has a strong influence in personality when twins were either reared together or apart
  194. Structure of Personality (3)
    • Id
    • Ego
    • Superego
  195. Id
    Completely in the unconscious; operates according to the pleasure principle "devil"
  196. Ego
    "The Mediator" between the Id and the Superego; operates on the reality principle
  197. Superego
    The internalization of societal standards and rules; our moral guide "God"
  198. Defense Mechanism
    • Unconscious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety
    • Repression
    • Denial
    • Regression
    • Reaction-formation
    • Projection
    • Displacement
    • Rationalization
    • Intellectualization
    • Sublimation
    • Identification of the Aggressor
  199. Repression
    Making the threatening memories or impulses unconscious ("forget it happened")
  200. Denial
    Claim our impulse doesn't exists
  201. Regression
    Returning psychologically to younger time
  202. Reaction Formation
    Do the exact opposite (Act like you hate something but unconsciously you like it)
  203. Projection
    Attribute our impulse to someone else
  204. Displacement
    Direct an impulse to a safer and more socially acceptable target
  205. Rationalization
    Make our impulse sound reasonable
  206. Sublimation
    Channel our impulse into something productive
  207. Intellectualization
    Foucus on abstract and impersonal thoughts
  208. Identification of the Aggressor
    Adopting the psychological characteristics of people we find threatening
  209. 5 stages of Psychosexual Development
    • Oral
    • Anal
    • Phallic
    • Latent
    • Genital
  210. Oral Stage
    • Birth to 12-18 months
    • Sucking and drinking, focuses on mouth
  211. Anal Stage
    • 1.5-3 years
    • Focuses on toilet training
  212. Phallic Stage
    • 3-6 years
    • Focuses on the genitals
    • Oedipus Complex: Boys like their mothers
    • Electra Complex: Girls like their fathers
  213. Latency Stage
    • 5-12 years
    • Focuses on calmness other gender is yucky
  214. Genital Stage
    • 12-death
    • Mature Sexuality
  215. Neo-Freudian Theories
    • Optimism is the prospect of long term personality growth not the driving force of sexuality
    • Collective Unconscious, Inferiority complex, and feminist psychology
  216. Collective Unconscious
    By Jung, Memories past down by ancestors
  217. Inferiority Complex
    Try to overcompensate for feelings of inferiority by Alder
  218. Feminist Psychology
    By Horney, Inferiority complex in women is driven by social factors not by penis envy
  219. Determinism
    All actions are products of preexisting causal influences making them predictable
  220. Free-Will
    Ability to choose how we act and choose our behavior freely
  221. Locus of Control
    People believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside our control
  222. Reciprocal Determinism
    Tendency for people to mutually influence each other's behaviors
  223. Social-Learning Approach
    How we interpret our environmental affects how we react to it using observational learning and Locus of Control with Internal/External beliefs
  224. Observational Learning
    Watching teachers/ parents, changing/ shaping our personalities
  225. Internals LoC
    Belief that life events are due to their own efforts
  226. Externals LoC
    Belief that life events are a product of chance/ fate
  227. Self-Actualization
    Drive to develop our inmate potential to the fullest possible extent
  228. Hierarchy of Needs
    Need to satisfy primary needs (like food, water, etc.) before more complex ones
  229. Conditions of Worth
    Expectations we place on ourselves for appropriate and inappropriate behavior
  230. Self
    Beliefs about whom we are
  231. Organism
    Genetic Blueprint(innately good)
  232. Learned Helplessness
    Tendency to feel helpless in the face of events we can't control
  233. Humanistic Approaches on Personality
    Our DNA (which is good), our Goals to be ourselves, and what society allows. Show self-actualization, conditions of work
  234. Social Learning of Personality
    Our interpretation of situation, shows LoC and Observational Learning
  235. Behaviorism on Personality
    The situation gives rewards/ punsishments; genes no free will
  236. Psychoanalytic Approach on personality
    Fixations during psychosexual stages, shows psyche(id, ego, superego), defense mechanisms, stages/ fixations
  237. BIG 5 traits
    • Extroversion
    • Agreeableness
    • Neuroticism
    • Openness to new Experiences
    • Conscientiousness
    • (OCEAN)
  238. Openness to New Experience
    Enjoy new experiences and ideas
  239. Conscientiousness
    Sense of duty, discipline, orderliness, successful
  240. Extroversion
    Tendency to seek out stimulation and company
  241. Agreeableness
    Degree to which you are willing to up set others
  242. Neuroticism
    Tendency to experience and express unpleasant emotions
  243. Statistical Rarity
    Uncommon to the population
  244. Subjective distress
    Produce emotional pain
  245. Impariment
    Negatively affect an individual's ability to function normally
  246. Societal Disapproval
    Can fall subject to the climate of the times
  247. Biological dysfunction
    Many mental illness arise as a result of a breakdown of physiological systems
  248. Manic Episodes
    Experiences marked by dramatically elevated mood, decrease need for help
  249. Antisocial Personality Disorder
    Condition marked by a lengthy history of irresponsible and/ or illegal actions
  250. Conditions that occur everywhere with similar rates
    • Schizophrenia
    • Psychopathy
    • Psychopathic personality
  251. Conditions only in specific cultures
    Arctic hysteria, Ataque de Nervios, etc.
  252. Misconceptions of psychiatric diagnoses
    They are unreliable, they are invalid they disapprove on the people...
  253. Strengths of psychiatric diagnoses
    One diagnosis can be related to one or more other diagnoses
  254. Comorbidity
    Co-occurrence of two or more diagnoses within the same person
  255. Categorical Model
    Model in which a mental disorder differs from normal functioning than degree. It's either there or not
  256. Dimensional Model
    Model in which a mental disorder differs from normal functioning in degree rather than in kind.
  257. Limitations Psychiatric Diagnoses
    One diagnosis can be related to one or more other diagnoses
  258. Panic Disorder
    Repeated and unexpected panic attacks, concern of future attacks or change behavior to try to avoid them
  259. Agoraphobia
    Fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or in which help is unavailable in the event of a panic attack
  260. Phobia
    Intense fear of an object or a situation that's greatly out of proportion to its actual threat
  261. Social Anxiety Disorder
    Fear of social humiliation
  262. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    Sustained anxiety 60% of day worrying, can't concentrate
  263. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    Emotional disturbance after experiencing stressful event
  264. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
    Repeated and length immersion in obsessions, compulsions, or both
  265. Depression
    Symptoms of sadness, hopelessness, lack of motivation, loss of enjoyment from activities
  266. Bipolar Disorder
    • Consists of depression and manic episodes
    • Symptoms are elevated mood, less sleep, high energy, ...
  267. Interpersonal Theory
    When people become depressed, they seek excessive reassurance leading others to dislike and reject them
  268. Cognitive Model
    Depression is caused be negative beliefs and expectations remembering the more negative things
  269. Biological Model
    Lower levels of some neurotransmitters, dampen ability to handle negative events
  270. Behavioral Model
    Depression results from a low rate response of positive reinforcement
  271. Social Learning Model
    Learned helplessness. Either outcome is unwanted stimuli
  272. Borderline Personality Disorder
    Conditioned marked by extreme instability in mood identity and impulse control
  273. Personality Disorder
    Personality traits are inflexible, stable, and expressed in a wide variety of situations, and lead to distress or impariment
  274. Dissociative Dissorder
    Disruptions in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception
  275. Dissociative Identity Dissorder
    Presence of two or more distinct personality states
  276. Controversy of DID
    Is it a response to early trauma or a consequence of social and cultural factors
  277. Schizophrenia
    Severe disorder of thought and emotion associated with loss of contact with reality
  278. Schizophrenia symptoms
    • Delusion
    • Emotional Dysregulation
    • Hallucination
    • Speech Issues
  279. Delusion
    Strongly held fixed belief that has no basis in reality
  280. Emotional Dysregulation
    Emotional response that is less than normal
  281. Hallucination
    Sensor perception that occurs in the absence of an external stimulus
  282. Speech Issues
    Speech goes from topic to topic in a disjointed way
  283. Diathesis Stress Model
    Mental disorders are a joint production of a genetic vulnerability, and stressors that trigger this vulnerability
  284. Schizophrenia Brain Abnormalities
    Structures in the brain are enlarged
  285. Schizophrenia Neurotransmitter Differences
    Abnormalities in dopamine receptors
  286. Schizophrenia Genetic Influences
    Genes can carry some of the disorder
  287. Schizophrenia Psychosocial
    Maladaptive thoughts, interpersonal interactions
  288. Psychotherapy Patients
    15% adults and 21%children more women than men, more Caucasians than any other race
  289. Psychotherapy benefits
    People considering lifestyle changes
  290. Psychotherapy Practioners
    • Psychiatrists
    • Clinical Psychologists
    • Paraprofessionals
  291. Psychiatrists
    Medical doctors, can prescribe drugs. Focus on chemical imbalance
  292. Clinical Psychologists
    Typically PhD, no drugs. Focus on altering psychological processes
  293. Paraprofessionals
    Substance abuse counselors
  294. Psychodynamic Therapies
    • Treatments inspired by classical psychoanalysis, influenced by Frued.
    • Trying to fix abnormal behavior where the patient has behavior rooted in unconscious conflicts
  295. 6 primary Process of Psychodynamic Therapies (classical)
    • Free association
    • Interpretation
    • Dream Analysis
    • Resistance
    • Transference
    • Working through
  296. Criticism of Psychodynamic Theories
    Therapies were for high class people, didn't allow replication of experiment, but sometimes better than no therapy
  297. Humanistic Therapies
    • Emphasize the development of human potential, human nature is usually positive focusing on here and now not childhood, failure of innate drive to grow causing disorder
    • Two approaching therapies, Peron-centered and Gestalt
  298. Behavioral Therapy
    Therapies focused on specific behaviors
  299. Exposure Therapy
    • Therapy that confronts clients with what they fear with the goal of reducing the fear
    • Includes flooding and systematic desensitization
  300. Systematic Desensitization
    Patience are taught to relax as they are gradually exposed to what they fear
  301. Flooding
    Safe massive exposure to feared stimulus, response prevention
  302. Modeling Technique
    Clients watches other people perform desired behaviors, social skills, assertiveness
  303. Token Economy
    Desirable behaviors are rewarded with tokens that clients can exchange for rewards
  304. Aversion Therapies
    Uses punishment to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors
  305. Cognitive behavioral therapies
    • Psychological disorders are from errors in thinking usually changing interpretation of ourselves, effective for anxiety disorders and mood disorders
    • Less chance of relapse
  306. Dodo bird effect
    • All therapies have equal effectiveness
    • Therapies create trust hope, support
  307. Reasons ineffective therapies can be effective
    Placebo effect, self-serving biases(persuade the therapy works to themselves) retrospective rewriting of the past, regression of mean
  308. Electroconvulsive Therapy
    Brief shock administered to the brain, causes no pain, for severe depression
  309. Psychosurgery
    Destroy brain tissue in prefrontal cortex, last resort for OCD, depression, bipolar disorder
  310. Psychopharmacotherapy
    Use medication for disorder; treats depression, anxiety disorders, biploar, schizophrenia but can cause a lot of side effects
  311. Gestalt Principles
    Rules governing how we perceive objects as wholes within their overall context
  312. Semantics
    double meanings of various kinds of words
  313. Depersonalization Disorder
    Feeling detached from yourself
  314. Associative Amnesia
    Inability to recall personal information following a stressful experience
  315. Dissociative Fugue
    Sudden, unexpected travel away from home or workplace with amnesia for significant life events