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covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and cavities within the body
binds and supports other tissues. It contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix. Blood, Bone, and tendons.
contract in response to nerve signals.
- – Skeletal muscle, or striated muscle, is responsible for voluntary movement
- – Smooth muscle is responsible for involuntary body activities
- – Cardiac muscle is responsible for contraction of the heart
senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal.
- – Neurons, or nerve cells, that transmit nerve impulses
- – Glial cells, or glia, that help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons
- • Organisms use homeostasis to maintain a “steadystate” or internal balance regardless of external environment
- • In humans, body temperature, blood pH, and glucose concentration are each maintained at a constant level. Negative feed back attempts to return a variable to a set point. Ex: Shivering.
Is the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range. Endothermic and exothermic.
Ex: Vasodilation-Vessels dilate to release heat. vasoconstriction- Vessels constrict to contain heat.
Main function of digestion.
To obtain Essential nutrients, from the environment which the organism cannot make on it's own.
What are the 4 essential nutrients.
- – Essential amino acids
- – Essential fatty acids
- – Vitamins
- – Minerals
Four stages of food processing
- 1. Ingestion
- 2. Digestion
- 3. Absorption
- 4. Elimination
complete digestive tract
More complex animals have a digestive tube with two openings, a mouth and an anus.
This pathway is called the alimentary canal
Animals with simple body plans have a gastrovascular cavity that functions in both digestion and distribution of nutrients. They have only 1 orifice. Ex: Hydra
What are some digestive adaptations of animals?
- Carnivores, herbivores, and Omnivores have different teeth and jaws.
- • Herbivores generally have longer alimentary canals than carnivores,reflecting the longer time needed to digest vegetation.
Open circulatory System
- • In insects, other arthropods, and most molluscs, blood bathes the organs directly in an open circulatory system
- • In an open circulatory system, there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid, and this general body fluid is more correctly called hemolymph
closed circulatory systems
- • In a closed circulatory system, blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid
- • Closed systems are more efficient at transporting circulatory fluids to tissues and cells
single and double circulatory systems
- • In single circulation,blood leaving the heart passes through two capillary beds before returning. EX: fish, grasshoppers
- • Amphibian, reptiles, and mammals have double circulation
- • Oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood are pumped separately from the right and left sides of the heart
How is Reptiles and mammal circulation different from amphibians.
- • In reptiles and mammals, oxygen-poor blood flows through the pulmonary circuit to pick up oxygen through the lungs
- • In amphibians, oxygen-poor blood flows through a pulmocutaneous circuit to pick up oxygen through the lungs and skin
- • Oxygen-rich blood delivers oxygen through the systemic circuit
- • Double circulation maintains higher blood pressure in the organs than does single circulation
• In reptiles and mammals, oxygen-poor blood flows through the pulmonary circuit to pick up oxygen through the lungs
• Oxygen-rich blood delivers oxygen through the systemic circuit
The path of blood through the human heart.
Path of blood through the pulmonary
And the systemic circuit.
Explain the cardiac cycle (each component)
- • The heart contracts and relaxes in a rhythmic cycle called the cardiac cycle
- • The contraction, or pumping, phase is called systole
- • The relaxation, or filling, phase is called diastole
The components of the blood
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
Red blood cells (erythrocytes) transport oxygen
White blood cells (leukocytes) function in defense
Platelets, a third cellular element, are fragments of cells that are involved in clotting
Distinguish between a heart attack and stroke
- • A heart attack is the death of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from blockage of one or more coronary arteries
- • A stroke is the death of nervous tissue in the brain,usually resulting from rupture or blockage of arteries in the head
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of water and air as respiratory media.
Water is more dense than air and therefore requires more energy to keep it flowing over the exchange surface. Although the high oxygen content of air supports organisms with higher metabolic rates, oxygen is also toxic.
Compare the osmoregulatory challenges
of freshwater and marine animals.
Body tissues in a saltwater fish contain less salt than the water in which it lives. Because the saltier environment in the outside water draws water from body tissues, a saltwater fish constantly loses water through its skin and gills. To compensate and prevent dehydration, a saltwater fish drinks large quantities of saltwater, produces very little urine and secretes salt from this water through its gills.In contrast, body tissues in a freshwater fish contain more salt than the water in which it lives. As a result, water continually flows into the body of a freshwater fish through its skin and gills and the fish has no reason to take in additional water by drinking. Freshwater fish avoid an excess of water in body tissues by producing large amounts of urine.
The function of kidneys.
• Kidneys, the excretory organs of vertebrates, function in both excretion and osmoregulation