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Describe the main differences between a vector and a scalar.
A. A scalar is a onedimensional measurement, whereas a vector has greater than one dimension, meaning a vector has a direction. Basically, a scalar is a value, and a vector has a direction.

Describe and illustrate the forces applied to an airborne object not subject to spinning or wind forces.

Q. Explain the relationship between acceleration, speed, and position.

Q. Explain how the acceleration of this solid can be determined through Newton’s law.

Q. Write a code snippet based on the previous question that can be used to move anairborne object overtime.

Q. Describe and illustrate the forces applied to a solid at rest on a flat surface.

Q. Considering two solids of mass m1 and m2 with the velocity v1 and v2. Calculate the velocity of each of these solids after they collide, using a coefficient of elasticity e to model the extent to which this collision is elastic.

Q. Considering that m2 is immobile, deduct the velocity of the first solid.
A. In this situation, the immobile mass (m2) is almost entirely unaffected by the collision, whereas the moving mass (m1) has its velocity effectively reversed by the collision.

Q. What is an inertial frame of reference?
A. The motion of a body can only be described relative to something else. These are called frames of reference. In the Newtonian physics model, an inertial frame of reference is a frame which moves at a constant speed or is immobile.

Q. What is a noninertial frame of reference?
A. A noninertial frame of reference is a frame which is subject to acceleration.

Q. What type of movement is most suitable to study in this type of frame of reference?
A. Noninertial frames of reference are suitable for the study of spinning movements.

Q. Explain the difference between, angular velocity and acceleration.
A. Angular velocity refers to the revolutions per second of a body, whereas angular acceleration is the derivate of angular velocity, and expresses the rate of change of angular velocity.

Q. Define the term torque and illustrate with a diagram.
 A. Torque refers to the tendency of a force to rotate an object around an axis or fulcrum. Torque is effectively the twist to an object.

Q. Define the relationship between Torque, moment of inertia and angular acceleration, based on Newton’s law.

Q. Using a diagram, define and illustrate the forces applied to a cylinder rolling down an inclined plane.

Q. Explain how Newton’s law can help to determine this cylinder’s moment of inertia.

Q. Define the acceleration of this cylinder based on its angular acceleration and radius.

Q. Explain the term ODE.
A. An ordinary differential equation (ODE) is an equation which involves some ordinary derivatives, rather than partial derivatives, of a function.

Q. Provide the name of a frequently used ODE solver.
A. The RungeKutta method is an ODE solver equation which has been used for over 100 years.

Q. Explain and illustrate why an ODE would be necessary to simulate the movement for a spring.
A. In order to simulate the movement of a spring, other forces need to be accounted for, such as aerodynamic drag, which may vary over time. This means that the equation of motion cannot be directly solved and that differentials must be used. As shown in the diagram below, there are varying forces applicable to a spring movement.

