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Flexible and situational by nature; difficult to define. Negotiating symbolic meaning by using vocal utterances, verbal, or nonverbal communication.
Misconceptions about communication
- 1. Communication is Exact - communication requires creative negotiation, not transmission or translation.
- 2. More communication is better - increasing quantity may compromise its quality
- 3. Communication solves all conflicts -
What effective communication?
Effective and competent communication can increase our chances of understanding and of developing positive relationships, but communication is not a guarantee of success.
Culture Shock means
A relatively short term feeling of disorientation or discomfort due to the unfamiliarity of surroundings and the lack of familiar cues in the environment.
- Deciding what is the right or appropriate communication in a given situation.
- 1. Be honest and truthful - do not intentionally lie by manipulating or withholding information
- 2. Confidentiality - keeping our word; keeping a secret
- 3. Fairness
- 4. Significant Choice - having sufficient information about a situation to make a "good" decision
- Ethical communication - interpersonal respect, sensitivity, listening, tolerance for disagreement and dialogue.
- 1. Respect for one another
- 2. Does not mean we must agree with everything someone else says of does but simply that we believe very human being has value. Because they have value they have equal treatment, rights, and justice.
- 1. Fundamental to effective communication.
- 2. Communicating with each other, not to each other.
- 3. Makes moral judgments more reasonable by bringing evidence and argument to bear on our opinions
- 4. Affirms equal right of people to participate in decisions that affect them.
- 5. Open and uncoerced agreement
- 6. People's right to their own understanding
Perception process, 5 steps
- The process of becoming aware of people, events, or objects and attaching meaning to that awareness.
- 1. Attention - to be aware of stimuli around you
- 2. Selection - focusing on specific stimuli
- 3. Organization - make sense and reduce uncertainty. Scripts are mental organizational patterns to help arrange information and inform behavior.
- 4. Interpretation - Assign meaning to information
- 5. Evaluate - Decide on the worth or value of information
- Conclusions drawn from generalizations; predictive generalizations about people or situations.
- Stereotypes can be both good or bad.
- Good - Hispanics are family oriented
When sterotyping can lead to false categories that can lead to a definitive negative attitude toward a given group (prejudice), which in turn can lead to discrimination, or unfair treatment of a given group of people.
Internalizing messages and communicating with yourself about yourself; also termed self-talk
- The relatively stable mental image a person holds of himself or herself.
- 1. Refers to how you view your personality as well as your strengths and weaknesses.
- How you feel about yourself, or the value or worth you place on yourself.
- Self-respect - most important
- Self-concept and self-esteem can lead to self-fulfilling prophecies - events that are most likely to transpire because you expect them to.
- Your expectations become your reality.
Implicit personality theory
Assumptions about people based on a combination of physical characteristics, personality traits, and behaviors to draw conclusions about others.
We tend to believe that certain traits, behaviors, or personality characteristics go together, and we draw several conclusions about an individual based on observing a single factor. (ex: the person is relaxed, open, and friendly based only on his attire)
As we observe others we rely on our perceptual biases and attributions in order to make conclusions about them. (4) Attribution biases (judgments of others) include
- Fundamental Attribution Error - Overestimating internal factors to the exclusion of external factors.
- Ex: "I know Jared is late to dinner because he didn't plan time well, not because he's stuck in traffic."
- Self-Serving Bias - Over estimating factors to explain personal failure and overestimating internal factors to explain reasons for personal praise.
- Ex: "I did well on the test because I studies really hard" verses "I did poorly on the test because the professor wrote an unfair test."
- Attractiveness Bias - Thinking better of people who we find physically attractive as compared to people we find unattractive
- Ex: "Sharon is really beautiful and she's also nice; it's just not her fault that she can't seem to pass math"
- Similarity Bias - Thinking ohters we like are similar to us; attributing our own motivations to someone else
- Ex: "Jeff and I are a lot alike; I bet he really likes J.R.R. Tolkien books as much as I do."
Improving perception can enhance your communication abilities depending on your perception, especially when it comes to first impressions. How do you improve your perception?
- 1. Guard against perceptual error - (pre-judgement) there could be several reasons why
- 2. Gathering additional information (before making a judgement)
- 3. Use perception checking - ask questions first and make statements later
- 4. Adjusting your perceptions - as you glean information and clarify your perceptions (through dating - assign specific time periods and indexing when applied to certain circumstances)
- 5. Practice Empathy - a purposeful attempt to understand another person's perspective
Hearing vs. listening
- Hearing - physical process that allows people to perceive sound
- Listening - The mental process that requires mindfulness (paying attention) in order to create meaning.
Listening process, 7 steps
- A continuation of the perception process
- 1. Attention-to sounds that we choose
- 2. Selection-choosing to focus on certain sounds
- 3. Organization-how we arrange the sounds to make the words or symbols
- 4. Interpretation
- 5. Evaluation-analyzing and making decisions or judgments about the sounds we choose, attend to, and understand
- 6. Remembering-retaining the sounds we have chosen, attended to, understood, and evaluated for later recall
- 7. Responding-offering feedback
Listening barriers, 5 types
- 1. Pseudo listening - Pretending to listen
- 2. Selective Listening - when listeners focus on parts of a message that appeals to them because they like or dislike the topic at hand
- Defensive Listening - the practice of attributing criticism, hostility, or attacks to the comments of others even when they are not intended
- Ambushing - listening carefully in order to attack what the speaker says - opposite of authentic listening
- Dominating - when a person consistently refocus attention on themselves, even if they must interrupt others to do so; also termed at monopolizing or stage hogging
Listening types - 4
- Informational -
- focus on the speaker
- seek to understand the message
- avoid allowing the channel to decide how you listen
- monitor your reception
- Relational - listen to understand, support, and empathize with othersEvaluative - analyzing a message in order to judge its validity, reliability, or usefulness; also termed critical listening (analysis, synthesis, and judgement)
What are the (4) primary rewards of listening
- Increased enjoyment
- Improved understanding
- Enhanced empathy
- Heightened Civility (respect for others)
- Listening carefully
- Interacting with others
- Ask clarifying questions
- Jotting down notes
- Reviewing your notes
- Stay organized
Influences of language
- 1. An activity that influences who you are and how you behave.
- 2. Language allows us to express feelings and emotions as well as assert individual and social identity.
- 3. Language has certain properties we need to understand.
Language is arbitrary
Language is created in individual persons or through cultural associations.
Using different words with the same meaning or the same words with different meanings. (we need to verify the meaning with the speaker)
Reification or bypassing
When we use different words with the same meaning or the same words with different meanings.
Structure of language
- The way we put words together into sentences (syntax), sentences into paragraphs, and paragraphs into essays is governed by a set of rules that is culture bound.
- Language is abstract -
- clear, simple, and commonly understood across a particular cultural group. Other words or concepts are much more complex and are open to varied interpretations and understandings.
Describe the Triangle of Meaning
- Helps us understand how language works
- Relationship between thought, the word, and the thing.
- Dictionary - denotative meaning - meaning in the dictionary
- Thought - connotative meaning - our historical or personal experience that influences the meaning of the word
- Thing = Dictionary + Thought
Language is ambiguous
- Many different meanings for a word - can be confusing
- 1. Can be used to deceive intentionally
- 2. Ask for clarification
- Another form of ambiguous communication
- 1. Obscures the speakers true meaning or intention
- Ex: company is downsizing or "firing of many employees"
- Another form of ambiguous communication.
- 1. Language used to soften or be sensitive to another person.
Prejudicial feelings or beliefs we use to create labels that define and demean a group. Or when a group is superior to an inferior group.
A view that ones own culture or group is the center of the universe
Sex vs. gender
Sex is a biological factor based on the chromosomes in our DNA
Gender a social construct that creates a set of expectations for appropriate behavior
A form of prejudice regarding issues of gender, expectations of what is appropriate female and male behavior, and assertions on gender superiority.
Mindlessness vs mindfulness
Mindlessness - The use of fairly habitual or scripted (unique, cultural) ways of communicating regardless of the others in the communication experience.
Mindfulness - Willingness to create new categories of meaning and understanding in communicating in new situations. (cross-cultural communication-by selecting simple, concrete words with commonly recognized meanings)
A language strategy used by a specific group to create a sense of community among group members.
Confirming vs. disconfirming language
- Confirming - Language that acknowledges and directly supports the contributions of another person.
- Disconfirming - Language that evaluates or judges the contributions of others.
- Communication messages through body language, posture, gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact
- 1. Body movement (Kinesics)
- 2. Physical Characteristics (attractiveness)
- 3. Haptics (touch)
- 4. Proxemics (environmental factors)lighting, noise, temperature, also personal space
- 5. Paralanguage (vocalics)pitch, rate,
- 6. Artifacts - clothes, jewlery, tatoos
- 7. Olfactics (smell)
- 8. Chronemics (time) formal/informal
Body behaviors including the eyes, face, gestures, and posture.
- Particularly important in nonverbal communication. Where we seek to discover what a speaker feels about us personally and where we communicate most clearly how we feel about another.
Physical characteristics in nonverbal communication
- Our perceptions of others are influenced by their physical characteristics.
- Matters in job interviews
- Impacts persuasion
- Attitude change
- Perceived credibility
- Touch - basic form of communication and the one we learn first
- 1. functional/professional - hair stylist, chiropractor, physician
- 2. social/polite - shake hands with a stranger
- friendship/warmth - hug or kiss a dear friend whom we have not seen for a long time
- 3.love/intimacy - most personal and meaningful relationship
Physical space environments in which people communicate includes lighting, noise, textures, temperature. Another level is ownership of certain physical spaces.
Hall's zones of space
p.87 Figure 5.2
- Hall's zones of space:
- 1. Intimate space 0-18"
- 2. Personal space 18" - 4'
- 3. Social space 4 - 12'
- 4. Public space 12'+
- Vocalics or how the voice communicates without the use of words.
- 1. Pitch
- 2. Rate
- 3. Volume
- Fillers that some individuals add within their conversations, such as um, uh, you know, hmm, ahh, and others.
- 1. Indicate nervous, anxious, or unprepared
- 2. Can be distracting to the listener
- 3. Discredits
- A willful nonverbal action that conveys a wordless message.
- Can be construed as:
- 1. Displeasure
- 2. Lack of interest
- 3. Acceptance or support of the action
- A person's dress and adornments, which are a reflective of self-image and a means of communicating messages about the wearer.
Olfactics that influence nonverbal communication
Smell - most acute at producing past memories.
- Time - The study of how people use time as a nonverbal communication channel.
- Formal time - Scheduled time; used for appointments with paid professionals such as doctors, lawyers, and psychologists.
- Informal time - Unscheduled time, often spontaneous
Gender, cultural components
- Females - stand closer to each other in conversation, use more eye contact, use more facial expression and are generally more expressive, smile more, keep extremities close to the body, wear more constricting, form fitting clothes.
- Men - maintain greater distance from each other, use less eye contact, reveal less emotion through facial expressions, smile less often, tend to have extremities away from body, use more gestures in general social situations, have more negative reactions to crowding, more likely to look or stare aggressively at others and look elsewhere while speaking, more likely to wear loose, comfortable clothing
Behaviors such as direct eye contact, smiling, and facing the other person directly, and using vocal variety.
Interpersonal vs. Impersonal
- Interpersonal is communication between two people or a group, usually face-to-face. It can happen through the assistance of technology even when the people are not in the same space.
- Impersonal - information we exchange with the other person is superficial,lacks depth, and does not provide us or the other person with any authentic information.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 7 categories
- Categories are hierarchical in the sense that we must be at least partially fulfilled at each level in order to move toward a higher level.
- Each of the levels provides us with certain motivations that characterize our behavior.
- 1. biological and physiological - air, food, water, shelter, warmth, sleep
- 2. Safety needs - protection, security, order, law, limits, stability
- 3. Belongingness and love - family, affection, relatonships
- 4. Esteem needs - achievement, status, responsibility, reputation
- 5. Cognitive needs - knowledge, meaning, self-awareness
- 6. Aesthetic needs - beauty, balance, form
- 7. Self-actualization - personal growth and fulfillment
When we tell someone something about our self that they would not know unless we told them.
- A way for a person to analyze their level of self-disclosure. Contains four quadrants or panes.
- 1. Open - all the information that both you and someone else knows about you - information you have self-disclosed;
- 2. Hidden pane - information you have not disclosed to anyone
- 3. Blind pane - information that others may know about you that you do not know about yourself;
- 4. Unknown - information that neither you nor anyone else knows.
- Your sense of self will, in part, determine the size of the panes in our personal Johari Window
- Strategies we use to positively influence others toward us. Some refer to this as self-enhancement or "putting your best foot forward."
- This is not dishonest; it is a conscious attempt to make a positive impact on others.
Social Penetration Model
"Peel the onion" - A process that gradually reveals both breadth and depth of information. We reveal as we get to know one another. The depth and breadth of these levels relates directly to our self-concept.
Knapp's Relationship Development dissolution model - 10 steps
- Stages of relationship development and dissolution.
- 1. Initiating - parties attempt to create an impression (most difficult)
- 2. Experimenting - individuals begin to look for commonalities. (critical stage to determine if relationship will continue)
- 3. Intensifying - individuals begin to disclose in a more personal manner (more relaxed; "we" instead of "I")
- 4. Integrating - two individuals become a couple
- 5. Bonding - bonding stage signals to the outside world a commitment to maintaining intimacy.
- 6. Differentiating - begin to withhold or retreat from intimacy in a relationship. partner's behavioral traits go from tolerable to annoying.
- 7. Circumscribing - parties' communication is significantly lessened
- 8. Stagnating - communication disappears
- 9. Avoiding - each individual goes their own way
- 10. Terminating - when no significant intervention is attempted
Gender and titles
Relationship dialectics (7) issues
- Dialectics - Tension or opposition
- Dealing with issues in the relationship by negotiation of communication between the parties. Issues include:
- 1. Complementary or symmetrical relationships
- 2. Independent, dependent or interdependent relationships
- 3. Confirming, disconfirming, and rejection messages
- 4. Defensive or Supportive Communication Climates
- 5. Assertiveness, nonassertiveness, and aggressiveness
- 6. Rigidity and flexibility
- 7.Interaction, Domination, and Passivity
Complementary vs. Symmetrical
- Complementary - Relationships based on difference; each person brings characteristics that balance the characteristics of a relational partner.
- Symmetrical - Relationships based on similarity; both individuals share traits, interests, and approaches to communication.
Disconfirming messages, Confirming messages, Rejection messages
- 1. Disconfirming messages - messages that deny the value of a relational partner by refusing to acknowledge his or her presence and communication.
- 2. Confirming message - Messages that value the partner's presence and contributions.
- Rejection messages.
- 3. Messages that acknowledge the partner's presence and communication, but do not fully accept or agree with the partner.
Defensive and Supportive Communication climates
- 1. Defensive climate - A climate in which partners feel threatened and seek to protect themselves from attack.
- 2. Supportive climate - A climate in which partners feel comfortable and secure.
Assertive, Nonassertive, and Aggressiveness
- 1. Assertiveness - thoughtful, honest, share feelings and thoughts straightforwardly, speak for themselves
- 2. Non assertive - partner feel powerless and keep their feelings and thoughts to themselves
- 3. Aggressive - selfish, no thought for others, forceful
Strategies for managing dialectics in a relationship (4)
- Negotiating and managing dialectics in our relationships reduces tension that block relationship development and enhance the possibility for success.
- 1. Denial - partners claim that no tension exists
- 2. Segmentation - partners segment their approach to a dialectic depending on the situation
- 3. Balance - partners strike a compromise between opposing dialectics
- 4. Reaffirmation - partners have competing needs, but accept the tension between dialectics
Define the difference between "I" and "you" messages? Define the (5) "I" messages?
- Using "I" messages rather than "you" messages will help the other person hear what you have to say without feeling attacked or demeaned.
- 1. Observation - what you can see, hear, touch, and experience and focuses on facts.
- 2. Feelings - describes your own feelings.
- 3. Wants - describes what you want or need instead of hoping that others will guess what you want them to do or what you need from them. Avoid using the word "need" if possible.
- 4. Thoughts - describe your thinking. Beware of "I" messages that are really judgments.
- 5. Intention - describes what you plan to do. Rather than depend on the other, state your intentions. Give then a choice.
Conflict, tactics, styles
- Managing conflict is essential to establishing true intimacy and in managing various dialectics.
- A person must be adaptable
- willing to avoid lashing out
- focus on the positive side of the relationship
Conflict management styles
- 1. Collaborative - high concern for self and high concern for others; working together to resolve conflict; most effective style
- 2. Competing - high concern for self and low concern for other people; win/lose approach, person is usually aggressive, hostile, sarcastic
- 3. Accommodation - high concern for others and low concern for self. Used more in collectivist cultures rather than individualist cultures
- 4. Avoiding - low concern for self and low concern for other people. Withdrawal either physically or mentally. Ignore phone calls or emails.
Benefits of public speaking
- 1. Helps you in your studies and prepares you to enter the work world.
- 2. Provides you a keen advantage as you enter the job market.
- 3. Help you develop a wider range of abilities
- 4. Enables you to fulfill your responsibilities and privileges as a member of various groups
- 5. Enables you to engage not only in civic life but also in social life.
7 Steps/Process of Public Speaking
- 1. Understanding your assignment & identifying your purpose.
- 2. Brainstorming a subject & selecting your topic
- 3. Developing your thesis (central theme)
- 4. Conducting your research
- 5. Preparing outlines and visual aids
- 6. Practicing your speech
- 7. Presenting your speech
Speech general purpose, definitions (3)
- 1. Marking special occasions - speeches that recognize a person,place,or event
- 2. Informing - speeches that instruct or assist the audience in gaining understanding
- 3. Persuading - Speeches that stimulate an audience to reaffirm or alter beliefs or encourage the adoption of new behaviors or the continuation of past behaviors
Specific purpose statements
The purpose of a speech in relation to its specific topic.
- (speech is an interaction between the speaker and the audience)
- 1. What do I want my audience to gain?
- 2. Is the speech informative (learn) or persuasive (believe/behave)
- 3. Summary of the topic
Perspectives to consider in choosing your subject (5)
- 1. Audience - what does my audience consider important?
- 2. Personal - What subjects interest me?
- 3. Situational - What is the nature of the event?
- 4. Organizational - How will this subject reflect on my organization?
- 5. Practical - How much time do I have to speak? -research, prepare...
- 1. Demographics
- Age, Gender, Ethnicity, Level of education, Physical ability level, Group memberships
- 2. Psychological Profiles
- Attitudes, beliefs, values
- 3. Learning Styles
- Feelers, watchers, thinkers, doers
- Audience types:
- friendly, neutral, apathetic, unsupportive, opposed
Patterns of Organization for a speech
- Chronological - forward or backward in time
- Spatial - geographical top/bottom, east to west,
- Topical - categorical
- 1. Attention Getter (real or rhetorical, fact/statistic, story)
- 2. Motivational Link - "Today I want to (teach you...show you...)
- *Why you should listen*How you will benefit*What you will learn
- 3. Credibility - statements about your research, your interest in the topic
- 4. Specific Purpose (I want you to...learn) and Thesis statement - central idea or your speech * single declarative sentence, I will...
- (explain, define, demonstrate, description)
- Preview of main points
- A. First, I will explain...
- B. Second, I will discuss...
- C. Third, I will give you details...
Body's 3 main points
- I. Main Point
- Oral Citations
- Transition: Now that I've covered...I'll move on to...
- II. Main Point
- Oral Citations
- Transition: Now that I've discussed...I'll talk about...
- III. Main Point
- Oral citations
Transitions vs. signposts
- 1. Help lead listeners from one idea to the next.
- 2. Builds a listening bridge between ideas
- Signposts - words to assist speech flow, anywhere in speech
- * First
- * Next
- * Therefore
Examples of a "Brakelight" in your speech
- * To conclude today...
- * To wrap up my presentation today...
- * My presentation this afternoon must come to a close.
The speech outline for the "Conclusion" looks like this -
- Summary of Main Points
- A. First, I explained...
- B. Next, I discussed...
- C. Third, I gave you details...
- II. Final statement
- With this information, I hope you are able to ...
- Please remember that ...
When should you use Presentation aids? What type of aids?
- Questions to ask -
- 1. Will the visual aid help the audience understand my speech?
- 2. Will the visual aid help the audience remember my speech?
- Use a visual to clarify an important idea in your speech.
- Only use the visual aids you truly need.
- charts, graphs, tables, drawings, pictures, maps, photos, objects (keep out of site until ready to use them; then put away), transparencies, flip charts, video clips, segments of music, demo using people
- Avoid handouts until after the speech
- Know your equipment
- Know your audience
What are the different speech delivery style options (4)?
- Invest time to deliver your speech effectively.
- Deliver in one of four ways -
- 1. Impromptu
- 2. Extemporaneous -
- Recommended for most speeches
- Use a keyword outline
- "prepare formally, present personally"
- Helps you be "conversational"
- Achieved with practice
What are the various elements of effective speech delivery?
- Using appropriate:
- Verbal Clarity
Oral style of speech delivery
- visual, vocal, verbal components
- listener can't read your speech - be "instantly intelligible"
- Extended pauses
- Fast pace
Ex: The puppy is super
Why know types of speeches?
- helps you ...
- Narrow your focus
- Refine your research
- Craft supporting evidence
Informative speeches according to "focus"
- Speeches that focus on...
- objects - teach listeners about something that is visible to the human eye
- processes - explain the various steps in how something is made, works, or is done
- concepts - helps your audience understand ideas, especially philosophies, theories, ideologies, principles, or beliefs
- people - help the audience understand the life, work, personality, or uniqueness of another human being
- events - discuss particular occurrences wither historically or in present time
Speeches according to "purpose"
- explanation - deaf education in U.S.
- definition - bi-polar disorder
- demonstration - creating origami
- description - poverty in Guatemala
- briefings - used in organizations
Persuasive process: ethos, pathos, and logos
Persuasion represents a conscious attempt to influence the other party, along with an accompanying awareness that the persuadee has a mental state that is susceptible to change.