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What are infections associated with the upper urinary tract (kidneys and ureters) referred to as?
Which type of infections are associated with the lower urinary tract?
- Cystitis (bladder)
- Urethritis (urethra)
- Prostatatis (prostate)
Which gram negative bacilli are associated with UTIs?
- E coli
- Proteus mirabilis
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Which gram positive cocci are associated with UTIs?
- S. aureus
- S. saprophyticus
Which pathogen is the number one agent of UTIs?
Is E coli lactose positive or negative?
Is Proteus mirabilis lactose positive or negative?
What is the most common route of pathogenecity in UTIs?
What are the common normal flora of the vagina?
Which bacterial agents are associated with STIs?
- Neisseria gonorhoeae
- Chalmydia trachomatis serovars D-K
- Treponema pallidum
Neisseria gonorrhoeae- gram and shape?
- Gram negative diplococci (kidney bean)
- Aka gonococcus
What are the roles of the outer membrane proteins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae?
- Opacity proteins- attachment
- Porin proteins- interfere with degranulations of neutrophils
What are the virulence factors of Neisseria gonorrhoeae?
- LOS (endotoxin)
- IgA protease
- Pili- undergo phase and antigenic variation
- Outer membrane proteins
- Can survive within neutrophils
Which media does Neisseria gonorrhoeae grow best on?
Chocolate agar, Thayer-Martin (selective)
Which complications are associated with gonorrhea?
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Septic arthritis
Chlamydia trachomatis- gram?
- Gram negative cell wall structure (contain LPS)
- Obligate intracellular
What are the two forms that Chlamydia takes on during its life cycle?
- 1. Elementary body (infectious, non-replicating, resistant to harsh environment)
- 2. Reticulate body (non-infectious, replicating, metabolically active)
What complication is associated with chlamydia?
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Treponema pallidum- shape?
- Spiral shaped
- Gram negtive cell wall structure
What is the best method of visualizing Treponema pallidum?
What is associated with primary syphilis?
Chancre at the site of inoculation
What are the most common symptoms associated with secondary syphilis?
What are the characteristics of latent syphilis?
No clinical signs, positive serology test
What are the characteristics of tertiary syphilis?
- Granulomatous lesions
- Cardiovascular involvement
- Ulcerating gumma