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What properties are shared by all types of epithelia?
Transport epithelia are involved in the osmoregulation and excretion of wastes. Example: Marine birds can drink salt water since they have epithelia to remove salt.
Is it accurate to define homeostasis as a constant environment?
For Regulators which are usually endothermic their body internals needs to stay constant no matter the outside environment.
Any organism whose internal environment is highly influenced by external factors. Many marine invertebrates are conformers: they have no need to control their internal environment since the external environment is fairly constant in terms of temperature, oxygen tension, and nutrients.
Describe the differences between negative feedback and positive feedback
positive feedback mechanism - mechanism that amplifies the impact of a stimulus, thus increasing deviation from a metabolic set point. Can hasten a process to finish.
negative feedback mechanism - response that dampens the impact of the stimulus, thus reducing deviation from a metabolic set point.
Distinguish the overall structure of a vascular cavity from that of an alimentary canal.
gastrovascular cavity - Simple digestive system with only one opening for entry of food and elimination of waste.
alimentary canal - Digestive tube with two openings, a mouth, and an anus.
What are the advantages of a longer alimentary canal for processing plant material
that’s difficult to digest?
Plants are harder to digest so herbivores need to process them for a longer time.
How is the flow of hemolymph through an opened circulatory system?
Hemolymph is pumped from the heart through valves into the hemocoel where it bathes organs directly. It then returns through one way pores called ostia.
Three chambered hearts with incomplete septa were once viewed as less adapted for
circulation than mammalian hearts. Is there an advantage to a three chambered heart that was overlooked by this viewpoint?
In amphibians and reptiles the two atria allows for the oxygenated blood to be seperated from the de-oxygenated blood. The Pulmonary-cutaneous circuit takes in O2 from the lungs and skin.
Explain why blood in the pulmonary vein has more oxygen than blood in the vena cava.
Pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart. The Vena cava takes in blood from lower body that has it's oxygen used up.
What determines whether oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse into or out of the
capillaries in the tissues and near the alveoli?
The high amount of oxygen diffuses into tissues while carbon dioxide diffuses into veins.
For a freshwater fish the movement of salt from the water requires energy. Why?
For freshwater fish they are hypertonic to their solution so they much constantly take in salt from the water.
In an arid environment what advantage does uric acid offers as a nitrogenous
Solid uric acid waste has much less water loss than nitrogenous waste.
What is the function of the filtration step in the excretory system?
It is the process by which water and small solutes are extracted from body fluids such as blood.
Compare and contrast how the different waste products enter the excretory system in
flatworm, earthworm and insects.
Worms have primitive systems called protonephridia. Where pores called nephriophores excrete wastes.
Insects have malpighian tubes that empty into the digestive tract and anus.
How does the difference in size and cellular content between sperm and eggs relate
to their specific functions in reproduction?
Sperm are smaller and are flagellated for swimming. Eggs are attached to the placental wall and are larger.
Which division of you autonomic nervous system would likely be activated if you
learned that an exam you had forgotten about would start in 5 minutes? Explain
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates the functions of our internal organs (the viscera) such as the heart, stomach and intestines.
The The Sympathetic Nervous System handles emergency responses. While the Parasympathetic Nervous System handles relaxation.